How Can You Determine the Ideal Fat Ratio for Your Body?

How Can You Determine the Ideal Fat Ratio for Your Body?

blog-body.jpgAlthough the formulas for determining your ideal fat ratio are still controversial in the medical and fitness world, we share the two most commonly used measurement parameters below to get an average figure:
The table below is the most commonly used formula to determine the ideal body fat ratio in the world. When determining this ratio, remember that every body is different from each other and their needs should be determined accordingly. Factors such as hormonal factors, the geography you live in and gender can be determinants of your body fat ratio. For example, women need more fat cells than men to produce eggs.

Fat rate men Women
Max Rate 2-5% 10-13%
Athletic 6-13% 14-20%
Fit 14-17% 21-24%
Average 18-24% 25-31%
Obese 25%+ 32%+


The parameter specified as “Maximum Ratio” indicates the minimum amount of fat required for physical and mental health. This issue is still controversial among physiologists. Regardless, keep in mind that your body needs a certain amount of fat to maintain a healthy existence. Having a fat body causes all kinds of aesthetic and physical problems, and a zero fat body means an unhealthy body.

A good diet alone or regular exercise alone is not the way to be healthy. Remember that the important thing is to know your body very well and maintain a balanced lifestyle according to its needs.

For example, your age, as well as your gender, has an impact on your body's needs. While exercising, be sure to consult your doctor's recommendations and alternative methods to have information about your body.

Table 2 (Jackson & Pollock Standard):

Another very common body fat ratio table in the world is the following. Contrary to the above, this table also takes into account the age factor when determining body fat percentage.

Age men Women
20 8.5% 17.7%
25 10.5% 18.4%
30 12.7% 19.3%
35 13.7% 21.5%
40 15.3% 22.2%
45 16.4% 22.9%
50 18.9% 25.2%
55 20.9% 26.3%


As we get older, we need more body fat as our body and skin strength will decrease. Moreover, with age, the body's tendency to get fat also increases for this reason.

Another important point about body fats is whether they are evenly distributed in our body. Skin lubrication and organ lubrication are different from each other, and their dangers vary in line with this difference.

Body fat measurement methods such as Digime3D are the devices you should choose as they show you the other needs of your body and reveal your body fat distribution much more precisely and precisely than other methods.

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How to get your gym ready for 2018

How to get your gym ready for 2018

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It’s no secret that January is the peak time for new gym memberships, so it’s time to act if you want your gym to be ready. The top 2 New Year’s resolutions are exercising more and losing weight, and despite the economy stalling in some areas, the fitness market is booming (we’re talking a 44% year-on-year increase in gym membership spending).

But there is plenty of competition for that spending, so how can you put yourself in the best position to capitalise on the surge of January interest? I think there are 2 questions you need to ask yourself in the run-up to the most important time of year for gym owners and managers. Here they are:

1. Why do people choose you over your competitors?

This is about what makes you stand out from the gym down the road, and it isn’t all about price – it’s about what you offer in terms of the latest fitness trends and expected standard equipment, and what support you offer members to achieve their goals.

It’s also important to get up to speed on technology. For example, people now use a range of wearables to monitor their workouts. It’s a crucial part of today’s gym culture, and if your machines integrate with their tech, you’re on to a winner.

lso new 3D body scanning technology can become another weapon in the gym manager’s arsenal. How? By revolutionizing the initial consultation and sign up phase for new members. Offering a free consultation, gyms now have the ability to do one of two things once a potential new member walks through their doors:

  • Immediately build a report with them
  • Establish a standard for benchmarking and results that speaks to the training staff’s ability to work with clients to deliver custom tailored workout routines that keep members coming back.

2. How will you retain existing members (as well as attract new ones)?

Variety is crucial to helping long-term gym members stay motivated, and new gym equipment helps create a buzz around the place while also impressing new visitors.

However, your new equipment has to fit with how they want to work out – so why not do a quick survey to see what would most interest them? You also need to consider available space and how your new purchases will fit with existing kit.

You need to place an order for gym equipment soon if you want it operational by January. After all, standard delivery times are 6 to 8 weeks.

Time is short, though. Please don’t wait until the Christmas party season is in full swing and you’ve got a quiet few minutes while everyone else is out enjoying themselves. Make time in the next week or 2 to plan, research and work out how to finance the equipment you need. Then you’ll start January 2018 up to date, competitive and well-organised so that you can keep your current members engaged and attract plenty of new ones.

Key takeaways

  • Prepare for January now – given equipment delivery timescales, you need to get started to be ready for the New Year’s crowd
  • Research which gym equipment would best suit your current and prospective members (why not survey your regulars?)
  • Search for new technologies like wearables and 3D body scanning technology .
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What is the difference between your weight on the scale and your fat percentage?

What is the difference between your weight on the scale and your fat percentage?

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What is the difference between your weight on the scale and your fat percentage?

The weight figure appearing on the scale does not help us to reach any information about our fat percentage. A person who seems too thin may actually have a high body fat percentage. Although there are a wide variety of body fat percentage measurement techniques, we can take a look at the methods that should be followed in order to reach the final result.

1- How is the Body Mass Index Calculated?

The body mass index gives us information about the harmony between our height and weight. The most commonly used and known by almost everyone, BMI can be shown as one of the body fat percentage measurement techniques that we can trust the most. The body mass index is obtained by dividing the body weight by the square of the height. The following classification is used: The resulting value is considered different for women and men.

  • Values below 18, underweight,
  • Values below 25, normal weight,
  • Values between 25-30, overweight,
  • Values between 30-35, class I obesity,
  • Values between 35-45, class II obesity,
  • Values above 45, extreme obesity.

2- Waist Measurement

For a healthy future, the ideal waist measurement is 82 cm for women and 88.5 cm for men. While many health institutions worldwide take these values as the basis, it can be also said that the fat accumulation in the abdominal region triggers heart disease. Among the body fat percentage measurement techniques, the waist circumference measurement, which can be simply performed also at home, should be repeated regularly.

3- Thigh Gap

This measure, which is especially used among young girls, is valid when there is a gap between the two legs while standing. This gap also proves that the person is thin enough.

4- Abdominal Muscles

It can be said that a person with apparent abdominal muscles is sufficiently fit. Those who want to have tight abdominal muscles have to develop a serious exercise program, diet, and low-fat eating habits.

5- Waist-Hip Measurement

Body fat measurement techniques can be evaluated effectively by adding the hip measurement to the waist measurement. Women whose waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is 0.8 and above are at a higher risk of developing certain heart diseases and diabetes in older age compared to others. Cholesterol and triglyceride ratios in the blood can also be shown as the two extremely significant values for a healthy body.

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What are Body Measurement Techniques?

What are Body Measurement Techniques?

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It is necessary to perform height and weight analysis and obtain the ideal weight according to these results to consider the body healthy. Today, body measurement techniques used to obtain this data involves various methods. These techniques measure the body fat, muscle, and water percentages in in detail.

Underwater Weighing Technique

Underwater weighing, which is one of the oldest body measurement techniques, is used to calculate the body fat percentage. In this technique determined based on the Archimedes’ laws, the person to be measured is weighed in a water tank, on a swing-like chair. In the meantime, the person is asked to exhale and discharge the air in his/her lungs. Thus, a much more accurate measurement will be ensured. The logic of this technique is that the body fats are heavier than water. In an underwater measurement, the person weighs less than he/she weighs outside. These values are compared with the weight measurements performed outside, and the fat percentage is determined by subtracting the first value from the latter. Underwater weighing is carried out only in large laboratories, by professional people, as it requires special devices.

Dexa Technique

Dexa technique is also among the body measurement techniques applied today. Besides calculating the body fats, this method also determines which parts of the body these fats are collected the most. An x-ray device is used for Dexa measurement. This device turns around the body, and it measures the amount of fat, muscle, and bone in the body. This process, which is completed in approximately 15-20 minutes, is quite widely used today. Dexa measurement devices are available in full-fledged hospitals.

Skinfold Calipers and Bioelectrical Measurement Techniques

As one of the body measurement techniques, the Skinfold Calipers method is usually known for its application to athletes. Accordingly, the amount of fat in different parts of the body is calculated in millimeters. These measurements are taken from at least three parts of the body.

The method called as Bioelectrical Analysis is one of the most effective body measurement techniques. In this method, while the electrical conductivity of the lean tissues are higher, adipose tissues do not have this conductivity. The electrodes connected to the person can make this measurement.

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The Importance of Sports for Health

The Importance of Sports for Health


It is very important to do sports for health protection and fitness. Although the term “doing sports” is sometimes referred to as entertainment and sometimes defense, doing sports is one of the activities that affect the body metabolism the most. It has great benefits with its many aspects from the tissue to the bone in the body, from the lungs to the heart and vascular diseases, particularly for a healthy life. Although the benefit of doing sports is great, the time spent on sports is very little. The self-motivation of the people to achieve specific goals will increase the time allocated to sports. At this point, the importance of sports data  is also quite great. By preparing a sports data for yourself, you can motivate yourself positively about the time spent on sports every day. The importance of sports data actually shows the sports branches in our country. The importance of sports data is great especially in exercise and swimming, and the tendency to individual sports has been increasing each day.

Prepare yourself for sports

To gain the habit of doing sports, you must first prepare yourself for sports. You should do the sport not as a task, but with love. Otherwise, doing sports every day can be torture for you. You must first prepare yourself for sports psychologically.

Prepare a schedule for the sport you love and determine the time you need to do sport every day. If your sport is an exercise, you can make the sport activity more colorful with different types of exercises. The importance of sports data  is actually about your adaptation to sports. Therefore, you should get assistance on the importance of sports data from a specialist, if possible. Have a daily sports plan. This way, your motivation will increase even more.

The Incredible Benefit of Sports for Health

Doing sports actually benefits every part of the body differently. It is good for the heart and vascular disorders by strengthening the lungs. It makes the individual feel better both psychologically and physically. It acts as a shield against depression. It has a great effect on fighting diabetes and obesity disorders. It regulates blood glucose, cholesterol, and blood pressure levels. It also improves bone and muscular tissue, thereby increasing the body’s resistance. It strengthens the immune system against all kinds of ailments, especially in winter.

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Posture and Healthy Life

Posture and Healthy Life


The skeletal system is the most important structure of the human body. The proper stance of the skeletal system is called posture. As a medical term, posture means stance.

Posture is the structural framework of your body. A proper posture is an indicator of a healthy body. On the contrary, a faulty posture may be a symptom or cause of several physical and neurological disorders. In fact, we often experience this issue about posture and our health status in daily life. Many of us experienced a pain in the leg muscles or in the lumbar region due to the shoes used. Or, we felt an uncomfortable tension in the neck and shoulder area when we are stressed. In this article, we want to give you some informative examples on this subject, as well as, share some academic studies that reveal that postural disorders can lead to more serious health problems.

1) Posture Disorders in School Age Children
The authors of this study revealed that more than 50% of school-aged children had symptoms of postural disorder. They concluded that postural disorders were due to several causes, such as bone and muscular lesions, central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction, inappropriate environment, and lack of physical activity. They also reported that postural disorder symptoms were most common in the upper trunk, shoulder, and neck muscles.

This study reveals that school-age children need proper posture and movement training to prevent postural disorders. The implementation of proper posture and movement programs in schools has been identified as a useful public health initiative.

Radzevičienė, L & Kazlauskas, A. (2016) Posture Disorders and their Causes in Rural School Pupils. Social Welfare Interdisciplinary Approach, 6(1) p. 118-125.

2) An Active Life and a Upright Posture Affects Cognitive Functions Positively
This study reveals that an upright posture and an active life are associated with different cognitive functions and that adults show better memory performance when they have proper posture. This significant study proves that there is a link between postural alignment and cognitive functionality in healthy older adults.

Muscle strengthening exercise, an elderly patient and a physiotherapists

In this study, the authors define the terms of “Mobility” and “Posture” and reveal how the decrease in mobility and posture disorder affect the elderly adults.  The study reveals that elderly adults tend to hold their heads and necks forward from their bodies and this directly leads to a decrease in cognitive functions.

Cohen, R. et al. (2016) Mobility and Upright Posture Are Associated with Different Aspects of Cognition in Older Adults. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 8(257).

3) The Relationship Between the Posture and the Emotions
This study reveals that the posture can affect the emotional state of the individual and vice-versa. The study reveals that the emotions of happiness, success, trust, and optimism have a significant and direct correlation with the person’s posture.

In this study, the authors revealed that postural disorders such as protrusion of the head, shoulder elevation, and hyperextension of the knees were observed in the individuals when they were angry. It is emphasized that angry individuals also tend to have shoulder protraction.

Rosário, J. L., Diógenes, M. S. B., Mattei, R., & Leite, J. R. (2016). Angry posture. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies.

5) Effects of a bad posture on vital Respiratory Function
The results of this study suggest that forward head posture may reduce respiratory capacity, possibly due to weakness or disharmony of the accessory respiratory muscles.

Respiration is an activity affected by complex biomechanical factors; therefore, the postural stability of the cervical and thoracic spine regions is of great importance for the smooth functioning of respiratory functions. The forward head posture causes shortening and weakening of some respiratory muscles in the long run. Moreover, it increases the muscle tension around the thoracic spine, thus, restricting the range of motion in the upper thoracic spine.

Han, J. et al. (2016) Effects of forward head posture on forced vital capacity and respiratory muscles activity. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 28(1) p. 128–131.

6) Need for Postural Training Programs in Physical Education Classes
In this study, school-age children attended a physical education course where they performed posture exercises twice a week.

The researchers found that the children showed a better posture after the application of postural correction exercise intervention. It has been stated that applying posture exercises in more schools is a smart and effective strategy for the prevention of early-onset postural impairment symptoms.

Ruivo, R. et al. (2016) The effects of training and detraining after an 8 month resistance and stretching training program on forward head and protracted shoulder postures in adolescents: Randomised controlled study. Manual Therapy, 21 p. 76-82.

7) Strengthening and Stretching Exercises for Improving Forward Head Posture
This study reveals the importance of performing posture rehabilitation in patients with forward head posture. In this study, both stretching and strengthening exercises were shown to be effective in reducing the forward head posture.

The researchers also emphasized that the postural balance of the “strengthening” group was increased. It has been stated that postural exercises that focus on strengthening the weak muscle structure are beneficial for structural correction and improvement of dynamic balance ability.

Lee, S. & Lee, J. (2016) Effects of strengthening and stretching exercises on the forward head posture. Journal of International Academy of Physical Therapy Research, 7(2) p.1046-1050.

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How to Measure the Circumference of Muscles?

How to Measure the Circumference of Muscles?


How to Measure the Circumference of Muscles?

The circumference of our muscles provides us with a number of useful information to make our fitness or bodybuilding program efficient.

Having information about the circumferences of our body muscles is quite important for us to see our progress, to follow up which muscle groups respond to our exercise program, and which ones fall behind in development. As those who are interested in fitness or bodybuilding know, each muscle group develops at different pace; therefore, each muscle should be treated differently. However, diet and rest are also significant for a healthy and correct muscle development.

You can measure your muscle circumference simply by using a measuring tape around your limbs. It would also be useful to wrap a string around your limbs and then measure the string you marked.

When measuring your muscle circumference, keep in mind that the main goal is to provide data for continuity.

The tape measure or string you wrap around your muscle should form a flat surface when viewed from above. Over stretching the tape measure or the string or leaving it too loose causes you to take the wrong measure. Be sure to apply the tool to your body with the same tension and intensity as of the previous application. Note that this manual method will not give the most accurate result. As we mentioned above, focus on continuity.

The following muscle groups can be measured using this method from top to bottom: neck, shoulder circumference, chest, biceps, waist circumference, buttocks circumference, hips, and inner head.

Neck: While standing upright, take the measure by wrapping the tape measure or string just above your Adam’s apple.

Shoulder circumference: Again, while standing upright, take the measure by wrapping the tape measure or string around the most perpendicular protrusions of your shoulders.

Chest: After you exhale while standing upright, take the measure by wrapping the tape measure or string around your body just over the nipples.

Biceps When standing upright, bend your arms, contract your arm muscles, and take measure by wrapping the tape measure or string around the arm. 

Waist circumference: While standing upright, strain your waist muscles and take measure by wrapping the tape measure or string around sharp protrusions of your pelvis.

Buttocks circumference: While standing upright, strain the muscles at the back and take measure by wrapping the tape measure or string around the far ends.

Hips: Take measure by wrapping the tape measure around the whole leg from the end of the muscles at the back.

Inner Head: While standing upright, strain your inner head muscles and take measure by wrapping the tape measure or string around the thickest part.

All these values will give you information about your progress in the fitness or bodybuilding process. Keep in mind that this method gives you only the circumference measures of the muscle groups. It does not say how much of it consists of muscle and how much of it consists of fat. But instead of wasting time with these troublesome methods that do not provide definite results, you can have a precisely accurate three-dimensional map of your body by a three-dimensional body scanning system such as Digime3D. This map will provide you with your muscle measurement and distribution, your body fat balance, and all the other valuable information that will determine the future of your fitness program with a precise accuracy.

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Fast and Healthy Ways to Lose Weight

Fast and Healthy Ways to Lose Weight


You want to lose weight quickly and you want to achieve it in a healthy way. But how?

First of all, keep in mind that many experts say that losing weight gradually is the best way. We recommend that you stay away from diets and food supplements that promise to cause quick weight-loss. When you lose weight very fast, you will lose muscle, bone, and water first instead of fat, which may cause you to experience some health problems or decrease in your quality of life. It is best to base the weight loss process on changes you can make over time.

You may think that a strict diet and workout program that pushes the limits is a fast way. However, we would like to remind you once again that experts do not recommend this. Not much research has been done on the long-term effects that these types of diet programs have on your health. In any case, they won’t provide a long-term solution. It is better to have a meal plan that fits your lifestyle and that you can commit to over time. If you insist on getting faster results, you should definitely consult to a doctor or a specialized dietician to make sure you get the nutrients you need. In this case, our advice to you is to immediately throw away the diet plans and food supplements that you have received via the internet or other ways and consult a dietician or a doctor.

In order to lose weight in a healthy way in the long term, you can achieve your goal more easily than you think by considering the suggestions listed below. Firstly, aim to lose 1-2 kilos per week. But never turn this into a constitution. Always give your first priority to how you feel, and closely follow up changes in your body. Above all, keep in mind that this process will be easier with a high motivation. Stress or health problems are the most anticipated enemies that will     cause you to fail in this process. If necessary, reduce your target to 1-2 kilos per month.

Have a plan

The first rule to lose weight is to burn more calories than the calories of the food you eat and drink. Although it may seem like a simple rule, you either might have experienced that it wasn’t as easy as it seemed, or you will face the real case soon. When you start a diet plan where you reduce the calories you take, your body will perceive it as a matter of life and death. Your metabolism, which basically converts the calories you take into energy, will slow down as a vital precaution. As a result, your weight loss process will stop and your slow metabolism will stay away from several vitamins and minerals necessary for your body with the reduction of nutrients you take in with foods. While weight loss is generally fast in the first weeks of diet programs, the sudden weight-loss causes serious low motivation in people; also, physical fatigue and psychological effects caused by the lack of vitamins and minerals cause people to end their diet processes. So run your weight-loss process following a balanced program that doesn’t include too much calorie deficit.

How do you do that?

Reduce your portions. Switching from 5 spoons to 4 spoons will make huge differences. To do this, replace the serving plates and spoons you use at home with smaller ones. Calculate how many calories are in the foods and portions you take. Read their labels to find out how many calories the foods contain. You will be shocked when you see how many calories pre-made sauces and processed foods have. 2 spoons of pomegranate syrup added to 1 plate of salad will double the amount of calories of that plate. Long story short, try to keep the calorie intake below your daily calorie needs.

Drink more water, choose foods that are useful to you, such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and lean protein. Thus, you go on having good nutrition.

It is a good idea to consult to a dietician if you believe that you cannot regularly follow what we have mentioned above. They will create a meal schedule and plan that suits you and your needs.

Get Support

Many apps can help you track the amount of calories you take daily. You can use your smartphone to keep up with your program, since, most probably, you always have it with you. Or keep a food log where you write what and when you eat. This way, if you cannot achieve your target weight-loss as a result of your program you can look at this log and create your next program accordingly.

You’ll also want to have people with you to help keep you motivated and cheer you up. Therefore, ask your family and friends to support your efforts to lose weight. Also, talk to someone you know who is losing weight in a healthy way. Their advice will motivate you.

Follow up your progress and your body, take advantage of technology. To keep your motivation high in the process, follow up your progress closely by making use of the technological opportunities around you. Besides your weight, follow up data such as your Body Fat Percentage, Muscle Percentage, waist and hip measures, visceral fat percentage by comparing them over time. These data will help you steer your diet and sports program. We suggest you take a look at our article below about this subject.

Get to know yourself

At the most basic level, food is fuel. It gives you the energy to do things. But very few people eat only for this reason. At every social event, that’s where most of us resort to when we have a hard day. You need to know the food and situations that drive your urge to eat even when you’re not really hungry, and have a plan for those moments.

The first step is to find out what your triggers are. Do you have stress, anger, anxiety or depression in a certain part of your life? Or is eating a reward for you when something good happens? Then, try to recognize these feeling when they arise and have a plan ready to do something else instead of eating. For example, you can walk for a little bit or send a text message to a friend, it will be useful to spend some time on social media, unless you have friends who post their meals and dinner plates.

Take some food types out of your life while giving more room to others.

You don’t have to be vegan, take gluten-free food, or quit any food group to lose weight. However, it will not be a bad idea to stay away from foods that have a load of calories that do not benefit you throughout your life.

Limit the excess sugar in your life. The sugar in crackers, cookies, sweetened beverages, and other products often have many calories, however, their nutrient contents are very little. Aim to consume less than 10% of your daily calories on these additional sugars. Do not consider the amount of sugar you get from natural fruits in this calculation.

Be selective about carbohydrates. You can decide which ones to eat and how much to eat. Choose foods with a low Glycemic Index (for example, asparagus has a lower Glycemic Index than potatoes) or those with less carbohydrates per serving than others. Whole grains are a better choice than processed foods since these processes remove essential nutrients such as fiber, iron, and vitamin B.

Add protein to your meals. It is a food group that will both suppress your feeling of hunger and let you enjoy eating if you like it. It will also help you protect your muscles. Lean meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products can be preferred. Also, you can meet this need from vegan sources such as nuts, beans, and soy.

Alternative protein sources

In Turkish cuisine, sufficient protein intake from various sources is provided in almost every region. So it can already be found in your diet, but the protein in your diet may be from weaker and unhealthy sources (fatty red meat, processed foods, etc.). So first choose to go for healthy protein sources. Remember that your protein requirement depends on your age, gender, and how active you are.

Prefer good fats. A small amount of fat can help you feel good and fit during the diet process. The best options are fish, nuts, seeds, and olive oil. These are foods with polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat groups that are particularly beneficial for our health.

Prefer fibre rich foods. You can get fiber from vegetables, whole grains, and fruits. The best sources are artichoke, green peas, broccoli, lentils, and lima beans. When it comes to the fruits, raspberries lead the list.

Eat more frequently. You can avoid the hunger effect by eating 5-6 meals a day. You can divide your calories equally into all these mini meals or make some larger than others. This frequent eating habit will also help speed up your metabolism by keeping your digestive system constantly active.

Pay attention to what you drink. An easy way to lose weight fast is to cut liquid calories such as soda, juice and alcohol. Replace them with zero-calorie drinks such as lemon juice, unsweetened tea or black coffee. Diet drinks will save calories compared to sugary drinks. But if you consider them like a meal, you will deprive your body of food sources and make your diet difficult.

Work out Of course, one of the indispensable elements of a healthy life is to exercise regularly. But working out should definitely not be regarded as an instrument to lose weight. Of course, regular exercise speeds up your metabolism and indirectly helps you lose weight by burning fat. But this is just one of the benefits of working out. We strongly recommend that you exercise in every stage of your life. In our article, we want to warn you about the workout program that you will perform in the process of losing weight. As we mentioned at the beginning, your first priority should be how you feel. In this process, a heavy workout program can decrease your motivation by increasing your fatigue. In addition, during the diet, your body’s self-repair period will be longer after working out. Therefore, we advise you should do follow a workout program under the supervision of a professional trainer during the weight loss process. For this, you can subscribe to a gym with experienced trainers in your area. These trainers will direct you to the necessary sports equipment and programs according to your age, gender, and health status.

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Don’t be fooled by the body fat measurement tools!

Don’t be fooled by the body fat measurement tools!


Today, measuring devices reporting the body composition of people using bioelectric impedance method have become an indispensable equipment and application in fitness centers and dietitian clinics. The fact that the values provided by these devices are based on statistical prediction methods, being affected by many statistically uncontrollable factors such as race, health, diet status, sports and activity history, and even clothing worn, leads to the questioning of their accuracy. Since there is no alternative method or device in the sector, these devices are demanded by the enterprises, although the benefit to value ratio is very low.

In this article, we will mainly talk about high error rates and inconsistent measurements of the BIA devices. However, we will try to do this without moving away from the purpose-benefit-value axis and avoiding manipulative and unscientific comments. Be sure that this article will also help you get more out of your existing BIA devices.

Even in advanced BIA devices, the error rate rises up to 8%. 

This is actually one of the most controversial issues for the BIA devices, and it is issue which is manipulated the most by the manufacturers. Manufacturers claim that their devices measure with high precision and low error rate, and they show the differences in the results of the measurements repeated on the same person at short intervals using their devices to support this. The fact that a measurement method’s giving a consistent result and a correct result are quite different from each other. At this point, the error rate is determined by comparing it with proven results.

To explain it with an example, let’s assume that we have a simple scale with an incorrect result that shows 4 kg lower per 100 kg. The margin of error of this scale is clearly 4%. The fact that the successive weighing results of the same person on this scale are the same does not mean that this scale definitely gives correct results. In the link below you can see how the manufacturer manipulates the subject with the values given. Even they had to explain the differences in the results of successive measurements with the sentence stating “Small differences may occur due to resistance differences in successive measurements”. Examining the results of the B brand, you can see that it gives different results of about 4% even in terms of consistency.

Let’s assume that the results of some of these developed devices are consistent. So what is the actual error rate of the BIA devices mentioned? To do this, we need to take a closer look at BIA measurement technology.

What is BIA?

It stands for bioelectrical impedance analysis. Although its name is pretty fancy, its working principle and technology is quite simple. They transmit a low level electrical current through your body, measure the degree of your body’s resistance to impedance, then use this data to estimate the amount of body fat. In other words, what we call impedance is the resistance value that all of us will remember from the physics courses at secondary and high school. Basically, the BIA devices are not different from resistivity meters used by the electrical and electronics technicians around you. I even claim that you can design your own BIA device at home after reading this article

The most important point you need to know before going into detail is that the BIA devices do not directly measure the body water, fat, or muscle percentage but it uses an indirect measurement method. The mercury thermometers in your homes can be given as an example. Actually, what this device directly measures is the expansion value of the mercury, and it gives the temperature of the medium or the object it touches by using the formula defining the proportion of the expansion of mercury with the temperature. The accuracy or error rate of these values depends on the amount of mercury used and the width of the cross section. As a result, as the length of the thermometer increases and the diameter of its tube is narrowed, its precision and accuracy increase.

The BIA devices also work with this logic. Based on the fact that the electrical conductivities of fat, water, and muscular tissues are different, it tries to calculate (estimate) the percentage of the fat, water, and muscular tissue in the total mass using a set of theories and assumptions.

What are these assumptions?

  1. The resistance encountered when a low frequency is transmitted from the device is the impedance of extracellular fluids. Because the current with this frequency value cannot pass through the cell membrane.
  2. The resistance encountered when a high frequency electricity is transmitted by the device is the impedance of intracellular fluids.
  3. R = ρL/A, that is to say resistance = resistivity x length / cross-sectional area. Many of us will remember this formula from physics courses at secondary and high school. The resistance of a homogeneous               object increases with the increase in length. It decreases with the increase in the cross-sectional area. According to this formula, the resistance value measured in the person is called impedance when we transmit a 50 kHz frequency by this BIA device, and we assume that this impedance value is due to extracellular fluids. Assuming that all is due to water, we obtain the following formula when we write the resistivity of water instead of the resistivity value:

impedance value = resistivity of water x length / cross-sectional area

To conclude,

we can state that “length/cross-sectional area = impedance/resistivity of water”.

4. It is assumed that the human body is like a cylinder in shape. (Unfortunately, the BIA devices assume that the human body was a cylinder, on the other hand, multiple-electrode measurement devices assume that the human body consisted of 5 cylinders: arms, legs, and trunk).

Now, let’s do some mathematical operations using these assumptions.

Let’s handle the left side of the equation we obtained in paragraph 3, namely the length/cross-sectional area. Now let’s multiply both the numerator and the denominator. It will not change the value of the fraction.

(length x length ) / (cross-sectional area x length)

Multiplying the cross-sectional area of a cylinder with its length gives its volume (we assumed that the human body as a cylinder in paragraph 4). Thus, we obtain the following equation:

length / cross-sectional area = (length x length ) / volume. When we write the other side of equation, we have the following formula:

(length x length ) / volume = impedance / resistivity of water

finally we obtain the following equation:

volume = length x length x impedance / resistivity of water

Bingo !!!! We have a formula to calculate the volume of body water!!!!!

We say bingo because our BIA device has completed its job. After that, all we have to do is to tell you your fat and muscle percentages based on this formula by using the data obtained from academic and statistical studies of decades!!!

To give a simple example,

According to academic studies, the fluid percentage of a lean tissue mass is 73% on average. According to the data provided by our BIA device, we can easily calculate your lean tissue mass since we can calculate our intra-tissue water content and total water content.

As you can guess from the above-mentioned working principle, the accuracy of the measured values is questioned for many reasons.

Assuming that the human body consists only the components of fat, muscle, and water seems to be the biggest basic error. Many factors such as the differences of our organ tissues, the minerals in our bodies, different types of adipose tissues, and air spaces in the digestive and respiratory systems refute these assumptions. Even though the manufacturers try to increase the accuracy of their devices by developing new measurement systems, using different frequency ranges, or adding new coefficients to the formula such as age and gender, it is not possible for them to cope with the chemistry of the human body by this weak measurement system.

Assuming that the human body had a cylindrical shape is an approach that people do not believe, and they say “Are you kidding?”. It is this assumption that makes the BIA devices’ basic theory questioned as a measurement method. I do not want to bore you with too many math calculations. But to put it briefly there is a 17% -20% difference between the volume of a male body of average size and the volume of a cylinder calculated using the measurements of the height and the waist circumference of the person. Therefore, some devices demand several anthropometric dimensions be entered as data to minimize errors due to this difference in calculations. Also, the main reason for the development of the BIA devices consisting of 4 or more electrodes is to regard the human as 5 cylinders, thereby minimizing the calculation errors.

Assuming that all parameters affecting the measurement are stable : Personally, this is the biggest reason why i found the BIA devices unreliable. There are dozens of parameters that affect the measurement result and they cannot control them whatever they change in the system. In a healthy human body, 2.5 liters of fluid are constantly displaced. If there is no other factor for dehydration, you take 2.5 liters of liquid from the outside and you lose this fluid through urine, sweating, feces, evaporation of the moisture in the skin, and breathing. Thus, your body carries out normal metabolic processes in a healthy way. In some cases, this balance may change in the positive and negative directions such as edema, mineral balance, excessive activity, menstruation, elevation of body temperature, the diet applied, etc. At this point, the biggest weakness of the BIA devices emerge. Because the BIA systems firstly calculate (estimate) the amount of the fluid in the body. Then, they perform other calculations assuming that the person’s electrolyte balance is stable and at normal values. However, it is a huge mistake to assume that these data are stable in extremely overweight and underweight people. The studies comparing the BIA and DXA measurements revealed that the BIA measurements were found to give lower fat values compared to DXA in overweight people, contrary to high values of fat content in underweight people. I would like to warn dieticians who caring for overweight clients in this regard. They should not take into account the change in the BIA fat percentages, particularly for the obese male patients, who started sports together with the diet, when they begin to lose weight. In fact, you will also see that the fat percentage does not change significantly compared to the weight they lose. The BIA device manufacturers introduce some pre-measurement conditions and rules to minimize the error rate in these assumptions. All of the conditions such as not eating or drinking anything and not doing sports before 4-8 hours, urinating before the measurement, not drinking alcohol, etc. are required for theoretically keeping the water and mineral balance of the person stable at normal values. However, I would like to warn again that it does not mean that a controlled diet of 4-8 hours in overweight and underweight people is not suitable for these individuals to measure water and mineral balances. It should be kept in mind that it might also have the opposite effect. I advise them to follow up your clients of this case with a measuring system (caliper, anthropometric measurements, etc.) besides the BIA devices. Likewise, it is necessary to pay attention to the fat change follow-ups using the BIA devices for the individuals having regional slimming by cardio and exercise programs without making much change in their normal diets. Because an individual who has just started cardio training will experience an increase in plasma volume in the adaptation process. This will cause a change in the total body water index, and it will affect the BIA results. In fact, my warnings above are just two of the examples that affect the results of the BIA devices. There are hundreds of factors affecting the water and electrolyte balance in the human body daily, hourly or even by seconds; they all directly affect the BIA results.

The uncontrollable nature of electricity: In order to minimize errors due to these electrical assumptions, the BIA device manufacturers specify many conditions and application methods to be followed before the measurement such as the arm position (generally 45 degrees), placing a towel under the armpits to prevent current flow, keeping hands and feet not too dry nor damp, and keeping no metal on the body. However, these conditions are not sufficient to control the nature of electricity. Hundreds of factors such as skin thickness varying due to ethnic and genetic reasons, clothes worn, humidity and heat of the environment, posture disorder or scoliosis, hormonal imbalances, prostheses, implants, hair, body temperature, etc. affect the transmission of electricity through your body. You can even see how these factors, which seem insignificant, affect the measurement result by making a very simple experiment with your BIA device. Measure your values using the BIA device following all warnings and methods specified by the manufacturer. Then rest in a lying position for 1 hour in a position where you will not sweat, and measure your values again. You will see how resting, not only the physical activity, affects the BIA measurement results!!! Because your body position will lead to changes in the regional density of the body fluids due to the effect of gravity, thereby directly affecting the impedance value.

High error rates of the formulas and methods used: As mentioned at the beginning, the BIA devices only measure the frequency differences in the electric current and calculate the fluid volume using a set of assumptions and make predictions about the body composition using the formulas and data developed as a result of academic studies. So, what are these academic studies?

I don’t want to get into its historical development very much, but to summarize the situation at the current stage, the following results can be stated:

  1. The most accurate and indisputable measurement method for body fat measurement is cadaver examination 
  2. The DEXA devices are accepted to provide the most accurate and consistent results by the academic community, and they are regarded as the gold standard. These medical devices use X-rays in their measurement methods. They are mainly used for bone density measurements. One imaging costs about USD 40. It is a very expensive system.
  3. As emphasized in the BIA technology, all kinds of devices and methods, except for DEXA devices, used for academic or commercial purposes obtain results based on body volume. For example, Bod Pod devices take the individual into an airtight container, and they determine the body volume by making use of the air displacement. This method, which is also known as the underwater weighing method, has been frequently used in academic studies before the recent technological developments. Simply, it tries to find the result measuring the volume of water overflowing by dipping the individual into a tank full of water. In fact, formulas that calculate body fat percentage using anthropometric (body size) measurements also focus on finding your body volume based on your body measurements. Then, all these measurement methods, just like BIA, estimate the body fat percentage and body compositions using the formulas based on medical research and statistical results. Of course, not all manufacturers of these devices attempt to develop a formula based on medical results and data. Their resources and budgets do not allow it. Instead, they use the formulas and calculations of the methods that have been developed and already accepted. For example, the calculations of Bod Pod devices are based on the formulas of underwater weighing method. In fact, it is a commercial method developed to eliminate the difficulty of using the underwater weighing method. Likewise, the BIA devices use body fat percentage formulas derived from the underwater weighing method. Instead of the volume variable in the formula developed using the underwater weighing method, the value of the volume calculated using the BIA measurement is entered, and the formula coefficients are arranged using this value.

Why do commercial devices always use the formulas of the underwater weighing method? The answer is very simple. Almost all academic studies were conducted using this measurement system, and these studies were published publicly. There, they can be easily accessed, and you do not have to pay a price for the formula and information you use.

Now, let’s come to the drawbacks of this situation for the BIA systems;

  1. The results reflect the subject profile of the measurement method based on. In the studies conducted, medical research and data are obtained from some subjects. Therefore, the formulas derived from these results and the results reflect this group of subjects. However, the ethnic genetic factors create significant differences in body composition.
  2. Each measurement system has some error margin due to experimental setup or environmental conditions. For example, in the underwater weighing method, air in the subject’s lungs and digestive system is a factor affecting the results. Some assumptions and correction formulas are used to eliminate this. However, it cannot be accepted that these correction coefficients give definitive results in a group of 1000 subjects. Therefore, it is assumed that the obtained formula has an error margin. The BIA formula, which is based on this calculation, automatically adds this error margin into its system. For example, the individual is assumed to have 100 ml of air in the his/her digestive system in the underwater weighing method. The effect of this assumption on the final result is about 1.5%.


  1. The results of BIA devices are neither repeatable and nor consistent. At this point, the results of the same person being tested successively on the same machine do not indicate the consistency of the device. The results of the individual, whose weight, activity intensity, and diet have not changed, can only be proof that the device gives consistent results if those results remain the same. Otherwise, the manufacturer must prove that other factors do not affect the measurement results. However, as explained with many examples above, the BIA results are affected by many uncontrollable factors.
  2. The error rate of the results is quite high. Due to the limitations of the measurement method and technology, several assumptions and basic formulas mentioned above increase the error rate. Manufacturers make arrangements in the coefficients and rate corrections in their formulas to reduce these error rates so that their systems provide relatively more consistent results. However, the global brands that serve a wide population have a hard job in this regard. It is very difficult to optimize the results in populations with different ethnic and genetic characteristics.
  3. Manufacturers manipulate test results and technological facts about their products. Of course, it is impossible to perceive some features and system methods as a simple user. However, it is not pleasant for manufacturers to turn this into an opportunity with commercial concerns. For example, the Inbody brand offers proof that its devices are not affected by the gender difference, as well as proof that their devices give results directly by measuring without using any formula or estimation method. At the beginning of my article, I claimed that you would be able to design your own BIA device at home. Now, I am taking my claim a step further by claiming that you can design a BIA device that is not affected by the gender factor at home.

Total body water (TBW) = 0.372 (height2/R) + 3.05 (gender) + 0.142 (body weight) – 0.069 (age)

The formula above is used by the BIA device of X brand to calculate your total body water. In this equation, R is the measured impedance value. The gender variable is set to 1 for males, and 0 for females. How can we eliminate gender variable from this formula? It is quite simple, we will also make an assumption using the results of a medical research. For example, while the average heart rate is between 70-72 in males, it ranges between 78-82 in females. You can avoid the trouble of asking the gender of the subject by adding a pulse meter to your device design. In the meantime, you can get the patent for this device.

Of course, I do not know how Inbody did it, but I am sure that they did not eliminated the gender factor from their formulas. Without these factors, the BIA technology can not provide analysis results.

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Body Fat Percentage, Overweightness, and Obesity

Body Fat Percentage, Overweightness, and Obesity


The scientific term of body fat is “adipose tissue”. Adipose tissue serves many important functions. Its primary purpose is to store lipids, from which the body creates energy. Also, it excretes a number of important hormones and provides some protection and insulation to the body.

Body fat consists of  essential body fat and  stored body fatEssential body fat is the base fat level in most parts of the body. It is vital for maintaining life and reproductive functions. The amount of essential fat varies between men and women, and it is typically between 2-5% in males and between 10-13% in females. While the ideal body fat (total of essential and stored body fat) range for males is typically defined as 8-19%, the ideal range for females is defined as 21-33%. In medical and academic studies, different definitions can be made on the basis of age, gender, and ethnicity. Also, the measurement methods and the devices may provide different definitions for the body fat percentage. Therefore, the evaluation of the fat measurement, taken by any method or device, by a specialist or dietician is very important. Having excess body fat can have several harmful effects on the person’s health, on the other hand, inadequate body fat may cause negative health effects on its own.

Stored body fat is the fat that accumulates in adipose tissue; subcutaneous fat (accumulates around the skin and vital organs under the dermis) or visceral fat (fat located in the abdominal cavity between the organs), and body fat typically refer to this type. While stored body fat is ideal and necessary in some cases, excessive stored fat may have serious adverse health effects.

Excess body fat causes overweightness, and eventually, it leads to obesity, unless adequate measures are taken to reduce the excess body fat. Keep in mind that being overweight does not necessarily indicate excess body fat. A person’s body weight consists of many factors such as body fat, muscle, and bone density. Therefore, very muscular people are often classified as overweight.

The rate of body fat accumulation varies from person to person, and it depends on many factors, including behavioral factors such as lack of exercise and excessive food intake, as well as genetic factors. Due to various factors, it may be more difficult for some people to reduce body fat stored in the abdomen. However, regular diet and exercise have been shown to reduce stored fat. Keep in mind that the body fat is stored differently in males and females, and this may change over time. After the age of 40 (or in some cases after menopause for females), decreased sexual hormones may cause excess body fat around the stomach in men or around the hips and buttocks of women.

Potential Complications of Excess Body Fat

The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies obesity as one of the preventable causes of death worldwide. It is estimated that 36.5% of adults are obese in the USA, and 111,909 to 365,000 people die each year from obesity-related health problems.

Obesity is associated with leading causes of death worldwide such as poor quality of life, mental health problems, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, certain cancers, and diabetes.

As mentioned earlier, fat produces a large number of essential hormones that affect a person’s body. Excessive or critical hormone deficiency can cause adverse effects that interfere with proper body functions. The studies have shown that excessive abdominal fat disrupts the normal balance and function of some of the hormones. Also, abdominal fat has a role in the release of specific cytokines, a broad category of protein involved in cell signaling, which can potentially increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Besides, it is directly related to high levels of cholesterol and insulin resistance. High cholesterol can block arteries and cause complications, including a heart attack. Insulin resistance can be defined as the difficulty in showing the effect of secreted insulin to control glucose in the body. Increased body fat can cause insulin resistance and, as a result, type 2 diabetes.

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Body Composition Values – Total Body Water -1

Body Composition Values – Total Body Water -1


On average, 60% of an adult human body consists of water (between 50%-70%). Most of the body water is inside our cells.

The total body water is kept in three major locations: intracellular fluid (two thirds of water), extracellular water fluid, and in our blood (one third of water). For example, a 70-kilo man consists of approximately 42 liters of water:

  • 28 liters of intracellular water,
  • 14 liters of extracellular water,
  • 3 liters of which are blood plasma,
  • 1 liter of which is transcellular fluid (cerebrospinal fluid, ocular, pleural, peritoneal and synovial fluids),
  • 10 liters of which are interstitial fluid (including lymph), an aqueous medium that surrounds the cells.

In fact, the amount of body water varies depending on certain factors: the body of a newborn baby (75%) consists of more water than the body of an elderly person (50%).

In addition, all our vital organs contain a different amount of water: while the brain, lung, heart, liver and kidneys – contain between 65% and 85% of water depending on the organ – the bones contain less water (but still this rate is still 31% ).

How do we measure the body water?

Except for those with obesity, water is the largest component of the body, making up 50-70% of the total mass. The water contents of various tissues differ, but 70-80% of lean tissue usually consists of water, while the fatty tissue contains about 20% water, but there is no clear rate agreed on by academics. For example, according to the Institute of Medicine, this rate is at the level of 10%.

However, the total amount of the body water is an important data in estimating the body composition. the Fat Mass and the Fat Free Mass (FFM) can be estimated based on the assumption that Fat Free Mass contains 72% – 73% water.

However, estimation or determination of the total amount of body water is not so easy as it is a dynamic situation.  Approximately 2-3 liters (L/day) of water change place daily in our body. However, in case of heavy diarrhea or physical activities performed in extremely hot environments, this rate can reach 2 liters within 1 hour. Therefore, even if there are many body water measurement methods in the literature, it is of great importance for what purpose and under what conditions these methods are used. For example, the methods that estimate the body fat percentage by making use of body water mass will give seriously misleading results. The Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) method is one of the most recognized of them. For a 70-kg individual with 14 kg of fat (20%), a 10% body water loss increases the fat percentage to 21.5%.

Body water measurement methods and devices in the literature;

Deuterium Dilution Method

In dilution methods, by giving a substance to the compartment to be measured, the concentration of said substance in the samples taken is measured. It is the deuterium dilution method that is well-known and most accepted by Schoeller et al. The patient is given an oral dose, blood and saliva samples are taken at 2-4 hour intervals and analyzed using the infrared spectroscopy. This provides 1-2% accuracy. However, body water assessment with this method is not practically usable as it requires specialization in measurement and expensive laboratory equipment. It is used in advanced medical examinations and research.

Blood Values

Significant medical data about body water mass and condition can be obtained from blood values such as hemoglobin-concentration, hematocrit, plasma osmolarity and sodium concentration, plasma testosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisol, and atrial-thiethetics.

Urine Values

Data such as volume, color, protein content, specific gravity, and osmolarity also provide significant medical data about body water mass and condition.

Impedance Analysis (BIA and BIS)

First of all, Impedance Analysis is not a device name, but the name of a basic method. Although there are dozens of device types using this method, these devices, which have a serious market today, are manipulated by both manufacturers and users due to commercial concerns.

First of all, impedance analysis is based on the total volume of a conductor, its length (L) and resistance (R), which can be calculated based on an electrical current with single frequency (L2/R).

This principle has been applied to the body composition assessment. The basic assumptions are that the conductor is cylindrical and the current is evenly distributed throughout the conductor. In this rather weak but innovative approach, the total water volume is calculated by making use of the conductivity structure of the cell wall and the conductivity of the body water. As mentioned above, the body fat percentage is given with a number of formulation and verification coefficient based on the assumption that the Fat Free Mass (FFM) contains 72% – 73% water.

However, 3 different methods are used in impedance analysis.

Multi-Frequency BIA (bio impedance analysis): In BIA, it is assumed that the low frequency cannot pass through the cell wall, so that the amount of extracellular fluid with low frequency value is estimated. Total body fluid is estimated assuming that the high frequency can pass both intracellular and extracellular environment. The difference between these two values gives the intracellular fluid value. It estimates body composition values by making use of these data. However, the point to be considered is that BIA devices give instant results, and it is assumed that the total amount of fluid it measures is your ideal body water mass. To ensure this, it prohibits fluid and food intake 4 hours before the measurement, also, it prohibits making exercise or even having bath before the measurement. The main goal is to bring you to your ideal fluid balance and calculate your fat percentage using the total water it measures. All BIA devices agree that the presence of edema at the time of measurement will affect the results. For this purpose, it prohibits taking measurements during menstruation. such BIA devices can be found today in all dietician clinics.

Single-Frequency BIA: It focuses on the total water volume, giving only high frequency. This method is usually used in body weight scales for domestic use.

BIS (Bio Impedance Spectroscopy): This method focuses on the amount of intracellular and extracellular fluid, with more complex formulas and a much wider range of frequencies. It is suitable for medical use because the analysis is taken continuously over a period of time, rather than momentarily. BIA spectroscopy method is widely used in the management of fluid balance to prevent excessive fluid load and dehydration of various patient groups, including hemodialysis and other kidney disease patients. You can see an example of the Bio Impedance Spectroscopy device used for medical purposes in the figure below.

Disinformation and manipulation start right here. Multi-frequency BIA and BIS methods are both multi-frequency methods. However, although their goals and methods differ from each other, BIA manufacturers and suppliers do not mind adding the features of the BIS method to BIA devices. As a result, they claim that they can detect edema with BIA devices, and they can follow the body water during exercise and diet processes. Thus, the users who consider the specifications provided by the manufacturer sufficient for themselves do not hesitate to make this comment to their patients and clients. However, the total body water (TBW) is a pivot value for multi-frequency BIA devices, in other words, a touchstone. This data is considered to be ideal, that is, there is body water balance at that moment, accordingly, the body fat percentage and muscle percentage are formalized and calculated. If you have edema or a little excess water (bladder, stomach, etc.) in your body, your water percentage will be high and your fat percentage will be low, which is a momentary data. It will not be a value that reflects your real body water balance.  Therefore, the analysis reports of the Multi-Frequency BIA devices make no comments can be made about your body water percentage and their follow-up cannot be evaluated. If your health counselor or dietician comments as if you have lost such an amount of edema by using the Multi-Frequency BIA device report, you can be sure that she/she manipulates the data to make you happy. If you have edema or your body water is not at balance at that moment, the measurement of the Multi-Frequency BIA device will be incorrect.

In the figure below, you can see the results of regular measurements by a Multi-Frequency BIA device of a known brand. If you examine carefully, you can see that 73% of “Fat-Free Mass (kg)” gives the “fluid mass (kg)”, even though the body mass changes on each date. Likewise, when you subtract -2.2 kg from the value of “Fat-Free Mass (kg)” , you can find the “Muscle Mass (kg)”. In this calculation, 2.2 is the bone mass determined based on the age, height. When you examine a little more, you will see that your fat percentage is calculated by subtracting fat-free mass from your weight and then proportioning it to your weight. In a nutshell, all the BIA devices do is to calculate body composition value using standard and unchanging formulas by estimating the total body water assuming that it is at balance. In this case, instead of following up such a complicated table, it will be sufficient to follow up “Fat Percentage”, “Fat-Free Mass (kg)”, and visceral fat percentage, if provided; since they are more significant figures considering your weight change.

In the BIS method, on the other hand, the patient is under continuous measurement (for devices that measure at short intervals, such as 5 seconds). Thus, a medical interpretation can be made about the body water percentage.

Therefore, if your values are measured using  Multi-Frequency BIA devices, which are widely used, please keep in mind the following issues;

  • Strictly follow the instructions of the device manufacturer, consultant or dietician.
  • Apart from the instructions given to you, avoid all kinds of things that can disrupt your body water balance. (Such as sweating, lying down for a long time, taking a bath, etc.). The stability of your body water balance is required to get the correct measurement.
  • If you think you have edema, you should postpone the measurement.
  • Have your measurements taken as long as possible while you are at the same physical pace and on the same diet program. Have your first measurement taken 1 week after starting a new diet or workout program.
  • Keep in mind that the value of the body water given is your ideal balance value if all these conditions are met; also, your values of fat percentage and muscle percentage are calculated based on this value considering your total body weight.
  • If you feel healthy and do not have an ailment, your body will maintain your water balance through the collaboration of various systems in your body. Never make any modification in your diet to maintain your water balance according to your results. Generally, edema complaints are eliminated with regular workout program and healthy nutrition. However, if you have long-term and recurring edema complaints, you should consult a physician.

In this article, we tried to give information about total body water mass measurement methods and devices used in the literature. In our second article on this subject, we will give information about more practical methods.

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Body Composition Values – Muscle Mass -2

Body Composition Values – Muscle Mass -2


Our body mass consists of two main components: Fat Mass (FM) and Lean Body Mass (LBM). As mentioned in our previous article, the terms of “lean body mass” and “muscle mass” are frequently used interchangeably by the device manufacturers deliberately; however, these two values are not absolutely the same. Lean body mass (LBM) includes bone mass, body fluid, and all other body tissues, as well as muscle mass. The subject of body tissues is a very comprehensive subject.  Epithelial Tissue,  which is found in the structure of internal organs,  Supportive  Connective Tissue, chich connects organs and muscles,  Nervous Tissue, which coordinates the senses and body functioning, can be given example to these tissues.

WhenMuscle Mass  is mentioned the total mass of 3 types of muscular tissue in our body is meant:

– Striated muscles (skeletal muscles or red muscles),
– Smooth muscles (muscles in our organs),
– Heart muscle (muscles in heart tissue only).

To summarize,

Muscle Mass = Total mass of the Muscular Tissues

Lean Body Mass = Body Mass – Fat Mass

How do we measure our muscle mass?

First of all, when we say muscle mass, we have to make sure which muscular tissue is mentioned. Usually, when people talk about muscle mass, they typically mean skeletal muscles. When dieticians or trainers talk about muscle and muscle mass, they mean our skeletal muscles. Because our musculoskeletal system is the only muscular system on whose mass we can effect by diet and workout programs, and it is directly related to our basal metabolic rate. You can strengthen your heart muscles with cardio exercises, however, you cannot achieve a mass change that will affect your volume or basal metabolic rate.

So we can rephrase our question as “How can we measure our skeletal muscle mass?”.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Method

Magnetic resonance imaging (MR or MRI) is the exact way to calculate muscle mass and its percentage.

The MR device uses powerful magnets to create an image of your muscles and creates a magnetic field. This magnetic field rearranges hydrogen atoms in your body, and it releases the energy that the device uses to determine tissues.

MR is the gold standard for determining muscle mass and percentage, but it is very costly, and the knowledge of the radiologist or specialist who interprets the results is very important. For this reason, it is not a practical method, moreover, it has drawbacks due to radiation in terms of regular use.

Multi-Frequency BIA (Bio Impedance Analysis)

In our first article, we mentioned how to obtain body composition values other than body water mass. You can access the detailed explanation using the link below.

What we want to draw your attention to is that the muscle mass value given by these devices is definitely not the skeletal muscle mass we question. It is not even the muscle mass we have described above (the total of all muscular tissues). The value provided by them is a value found by subtracting the bone tissue mass from the lean body mass. This bone tissue mass is the value obtained from a statistical table according to your age, height, and gender.

Briefly, what is provided by the BIA devices is the muscle mass value *;

muscle mass value* = Body mass – Fat mass – Bone mass.

As a result, this value includes all the tissues that make up our body such as all muscular tissues, body fluids, epithelial tissue, nervous tissue, and organ tissues. However, as mentioned in our first article and above, this issue is manipulated and this value is presented as the skeletal muscle system mass by the BIA device manufacturers, and this is presented to end-users in this way by the users in the industry.

In the figure below, the report of a top model Segmental BIA device from the most well-known BIA device manufacturer is presented as an example. As you can see they use the term Muscle Mass.   But you can see that this value is equal to Body mass – Fat mass – Bone mass , and that it’s not a measurement value, but a value calculated by a simple formula.

As a result, the value of the Muscle Mass given by BIA devices does not have anything to do with neither the muscle mass nor the skeletal muscle mass defined in the literature. This value is the estimated bone mass from the Lean Body Mass.

However, the Lean Body Mass is an effective follow-up value in Workout and Diet programs. Because we can assume that other tissues in our body, except for the musculoskeletal tissue, remain stable for 1-6 months during the workout and diet processes, when there is no advanced health problem. This means that the change in Lean Body Mass value is largely caused by the musculoskeletal tissue.

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What is Body Mass Index?

What is Body Mass Index?


Body Mass Index (BMI) calculates a person's body fat percentage based on their height and weight. To find out if a person is of normal weight, overweight, underweight, or obese, it is frequently used as a screening tool. BMI is calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by their height in meters squared (BMI = kg/m²).

The standard BMI categories are as follows:

Normal weight: BMI between 18.5 and 24.9

Underweight: BMI below 18.5

Overweight: BMI between 25 and 29.9

Obesity: BMI of 30 or higher

BMI is a useful tool for most adults, but it has its limitations. For example, it does not take into account a person's age, sex, muscle mass, or overall body composition. Therefore, it is possible for a person with a high BMI to be healthy or for a person with a normal BMI to have excess body fat. Let's look into BMI in more detail.

BMI Chart

Here is a BMI chart to help you understand the different BMI categories:



Below 18.5



Normal weight




Obesity class 1


Obesity class 2

40 and above

Obesity class 3



What is BMI Used for?

Despite its limitations, BMI is a useful tool for determining if a person is underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese. It is also frequently used to determine a person's risk of acquiring weight-related health issues, such as heart disease, diabetes, and certain cancers, by healthcare professionals, including doctors and nurses.

In addition, the BMI can be used to track alterations in body weight over time. For instance, if a person's BMI drastically rises over time, it may be a sign that they are gaining too much body fat, which could raise their risk of developing health issues.

It's crucial to remember that BMI is only one health indicator and does not account for other elements like muscle mass and body composition or general lifestyle choices. Other evaluations and measurements, such as blood pressure, waist circumference, and blood tests, are frequently used by healthcare professionals to obtain a more precise picture of a patient's health status.

How to Calculate BMI?

BMI is calculated using a simple formula based on a person's height and weight. Here are the steps to calculate your BMI:

1.     Convert your weight into kilograms (kg). You can do this by dividing your weight in pounds by 2.2. For example, if you weigh 150 pounds, the calculation would be 150/2.2 = 68.18 kg.

2.     Convert your height into meters (m). You can do this by dividing your height in inches by 39.37. For example, if you are 5 feet 6 inches tall, the calculation would be (5 x 12 + 6) / 39.37 = 1.68 m.

3.     Square your height in meters. For example, if your height is 1.68 m, the calculation would be 1.68 x 1.68 = 2.82.

4.     Divide your weight in kilograms by the square of your height in meters. For example, if your weight is 68.18 kg and your height is 1.68 m, the calculation would be 68.18 / 2.82 = 24.18.

5.     Round your BMI to one decimal place.

So in this example, the person's BMI would be 24.2, which falls into the "normal weight" category. Alternatively, you can also use online BMI calculators or charts to quickly determine your BMI.

What is a Healthy BMI for Men and for Women?

A healthy BMI range is the same for men and women and falls within the range of 18.5 to 24.9. This indicates that a person's weight is appropriate for their height.

However, the healthy BMI range for children and adolescents is different as they are still growing and developing. The BMI of children and adolescents is compared to age- and sex-specific growth charts to determine if they are within a healthy weight range.

It's important to remember that BMI is just one indicator of health and doesn't take into account other factors such as muscle mass, body composition, and overall lifestyle.

How Can You Maintain a Healthy BMI?

A balanced diet and consistent exercise are necessary to maintain a healthy BMI. The following tips can assist you in maintaining a healthy BMI:

1.     Balanced diet: include plenty of fresh produce, whole grains, lean protein, and healthy fats in your diet. Foods that are processed and heavy in calories should be avoided as they can cause weight gain.

2.     Watch your portion sizes: Eating a larger portion may make you gain weight. Use smaller portions and be aware of your body's cues of hunger and fullness.

3.     Keep yourself hydrated: By drinking water frequently during the day, it will help you feel full.

4.     Exercise frequently: Spend at least 30 minutes each day engaging in regular physical activity, such as brisk walking, cycling, swimming, or dancing. You can maintain a healthy weight and burn calories by doing this.

5.     Get enough sleep: Not getting enough might cause hormone disruption and weight gain. Sleep for 7-9 hours every night.

6.     Minimize your stress: Staying continuously tense can lead to binge eating and developing obesity. Use stress-reduction methods like yoga, meditation, or deep breathing exercises.

Remember, keeping a healthy BMI involves more than just getting to a certain weight on the scale. It involves maintaining a healthy lifestyle that includes a balanced diet, frequent exercise, and stress reduction to take care of your body.

What Are the Limitations of BMI?

Despite being a popular tool for determining weight status, BMI has several drawbacks that must be taken into account. The following are some BMI limitations:

1.     Body composition is not considered by BMI, which only considers weight and height and does not distinguish between muscle mass and fat mass. Accordingly, people with a high percentage of muscle mass, like athletes, may have a high BMI but healthy body composition.

2.     BMI may not be acceptable for some populations, including children and adolescents, pregnant women, and older adults, because of potential differences in their body composition and health concerns.

3.     It disregards the distribution and location of body fat. Body fat distribution might be a key sign of potential health problems. Even though their BMI is within the normal range, people with extra belly fat may be more susceptible to diabetes and heart disease.

4.     BMI is a screening tool and cannot give a comprehensive picture of a person's health risks. As a result, it might not accurately reflect health concerns. It may also be necessary to consider additional aspects, such as family history, lifestyle choices, and medical history.

5.     Focusing primarily on BMI can result in body shaming and stigma, which can have detrimental psychological impacts on people. It's critical to tackle weight and health with compassion and holistically.

Overall, BMI should not be used as the only indicator of health risks, even though it can be useful for determining weight status. Based on various variables, a healthcare practitioner can offer a more thorough evaluation of a person's health status.


In conclusion, Body Mass Index (BMI) is a screening tool that measures a person's weight in relation to their height. A healthy BMI falls within the range of 18.5 to 24.9, which indicates that a person's weight is appropriate for their height. However, BMI has limitations, such as not considering body composition, the location of body fat, and certain populations. Maintaining a healthy BMI requires a combination of a healthy diet, regular physical activity, getting enough sleep, and managing stress. While BMI can be useful for assessing weight status, it should not be used as the sole determinant of an individual's health risks. A healthcare professional can provide a more comprehensive assessment of an individual's health status based on multiple factors, including BMI, waist circumference, blood presssure, and blood tests.

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Waist to Hip Ratio

Waist to Hip Ratio

hip.pngWaist to Hip Ratio: An Important Indicator of Overall Health


Have you ever wondered how your waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) impacts your health? It turns out that body fat distribution plays a vital role in determining your overall health and disease risk. WHR is one of the most reliable ways to estimate your body fat distribution and is readily being used as an easy way to predict and prevent chronic diseases caused by obesity.


What is Waist to Hip Ratio (WHR)?

WHR is a way to measure body fat distribution that involves the comparison of the circumference of your waist to the circumference of your hips. You can calculate it by dividing the measurement of the waist by that of the hip. A high WHR indicates that more fat is stored in your abdominal area, which can increase your risk of developing health problems.


Why is the Waist-to-Hip Ratio Important?

Research has proven that to determine the risk of specific health issues, it is important to evaluate the distribution of fat in the body instead of the amount of fat. A high WHR, which indicates excess abdominal fat, has been associated with an increased risk of several health problems, including:

  •   Heart disease: Abdominal fat produces hormones and other substances that can cause inflammation, insulin resistance, and other risk factors for heart diseases.
  •   Diabetes: Abdominal fat is particularly associated with insulin resistance, a condition in which the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin.
  •   Stroke: Excess abdominal fat has been linked to an increased risk of stroke, particularly in women.
  •   Cancer: Abdominal fat has been associated with an increased risk of several types of cancer, including breast cancer, colon cancer, and pancreatic cancer.


Ways to Calculate Your WHR

To calculate your WHR, you will need a measuring tape and the following instructions:

·       Stand up straight with your feet together and your arms at your sides.

·       Measure the circumference of your waist at its narrowest point, usually at the belly button.

·       Measure the circumference of your hips at their widest point, usually around the buttocks.

·       Divide the waist measurement by the hip measurement to get your WHR.

For example, if your waist measurement is 30 inches and your hip measurement is 40 inches, your WHR would be 0.75.


Advantages of Using This Method

Using WHR as a tool to assess health risks has several advantages, including:

  •   Detecting hidden belly fat: WHR is more accurate than body mass index (BMI) in detecting hidden belly fat, which is associated with an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.
  •   Simplicity: Measuring your waist and hips is a simple and non-invasive method requiring no special equipment.
  •  Better prediction of health risks: WHR is a better predictor of health risks than BMI or waist circumference alone.


Disadvantages of Using This Method

Despite its advantages, there are some limitations to using WHR, including:

·       Inability to differentiate between subcutaneous and visceral fat: WHR cannot differentiate between subcutaneous fat (stored under the skin) and visceral fat (stored around internal organs). Visceral fat is more dangerous for your health and can increase your risk of developing health problems.

·       Potential for measurement errors: WHR measurements can be affected by factors such as posture, breathing, and measurement technique.


Interpretation of Results

The ideal WHR values for men and women differ, with men generally having a higher WHR than women. A WHR of less than 0.90 for men and less than 0.85 for women is considered healthy.

Tips to Improve Your WHR

If your WHR is higher than the recommended range, there are several steps you can take to improve it, including:

  •  Making dietary changes: Eating a balanced diet low in saturated fat and high in fiber can help you lose weight and reduce your waist circumference.
  •  Increasing physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise, such as cardio and strength training, can help you lose weight and reduce your waist circumference.
  •   Reducing stress: Chronic stress can contribute to weight gain and belly fat. Finding ways to manage stress, such as through meditation or yoga, can help reduce your waist circumference.

The Bottom Line

In conclusion, we can say that the waist-to-hip ratio is a simple and reliable method for assessing body fat distribution and overall health risks. By measuring your waist and hips and calculating your WHR, you can better understand your body fat distribution and take steps to improve your health. Remember that a healthy waist-to-hip ratio is just one aspect of overall health.

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Understanding What Is Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) and How to Improve It

Understanding What Is Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) and How to Improve It

Achieving and maintaining a healthy weight can be challenging sometimes, but understanding your resting metabolic rate (RMR) and how to improve it can make it a lot easier. RMR is the number of calories burned by your body burns at rest, which is the amount of energy your body needs to carry out normal bodily functions, such as breathing, circulating blood, and maintaining body temperature. Here's what you need to know about RMR and how to improve it.

Calculating RMR

Calculating your RMR can help you understand how many calories your body burns at rest. There are several methods to calculate RMR, but the most common one is to use an online calculator. These calculators take into account your age, sex, height, weight, and activity level to estimate your RMR.

However, it's essential for you to note that these calculators provide an estimate, and your actual RMR may be slightly different. The most accurate way to measure RMR is through indirect calorimetry, which measures the amount of oxygen used by your body and the amount of carbon dioxide produced by your body to determine the number of calories burned at rest. This test is typically performed in a clinical setting.

Although the tests are performed in a clinical setting, there are some equations you can use to calculate RMR.

Harris-Benedict equation

The Harris-Benedict equation is a mathematical formula that can be used to estimate a person's basal metabolic rate (BMR). The BMR is the number of calories a person burns at rest, meaning that they are not doing any physical activity. The Harris-Benedict equation considers a person's age, sex, height, and weight.

The formula for the Harris-Benedict equation is as follows:

BMR = 66.5 + (13.75 × weight in kilograms) + (5.003 × height in centimeters) - (6.75 × age in years)

So, a 30-year-old woman who is 5 feet 4 inches tall and weighs 150 pounds would have a BMR of 1,465 calories.


Mifflin-St. Jeor equation

The Mifflin-St. Jeor equation is another mathematical formula that can be used to estimate a person's BMR. The Mifflin-St. Jeor equation takes into account a person's age, sex, height, weight, and physical activity level.

The formula is as follows:

BMR = (9.99 × weight in kilograms) + (6.25 × height in centimeters) - (4.92 × age in years) + 5

For example, a 30-year-old woman who is 5 feet 4 inches tall, weighs 150 pounds and has a sedentary lifestyle would have a BMR of 1,411 calories.

But again, it is important to note that these equations are just estimates. The actual number of calories a person burns at rest will vary depending on a number of factors, such as genetics, body composition, and health.


Improving RMR

You can do several things to improve your RMR, and many of them involve making healthy lifestyle choices. Here are some tips to help you improve your RMR:

·       Lose weight: If you are overweight or obese, losing weight can help increase your RMR. This is because excess body fat requires fewer calories to maintain than muscle tissue. Even small amounts of weight loss can improve your RMR.


·       Build muscle mass: Muscle tissue burns more calories at rest than fat tissue, so building muscle can help boost your RMR. Strength training is a great way to build muscle mass. Aim for 2-3 strength training sessions per week.


·       Do cardio training: Cardio training is also important for improving your RMR. Aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity cardio most days of the week. This can include activities like jogging, cycling, or swimming.



·       Get enough sleep: When you don't sleep enough, your body increases its production of the stress hormone cortisol. Cortisol can increase your appetite and cause weight gain. Aim for 7-8 hours of sleep per night.


·       Eat a healthy diet: Eating a healthy diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains can help boost your RMR. Avoid sugary drinks, processed foods, and excessive quantities of unhealthy and saturated fats. Also, make sure to eat enough protein to support muscle growth and maintenance.



·       Stay hydrated: Drinking enough water can help keep your body functioning properly, including your metabolism. Dehydration can slow down your metabolism and affect your RMR.


·       Don't skip meals: Skipping meals can slow down your metabolism and lower your RMR. Aim to eat regular meals and snacks throughout the day to keep your metabolism revved up.

By following these tips, you can increase your RMR and burn more calories at rest. However, it's important to note that these changes won't happen overnight. It takes time and consistency to improve your RMR and see results.


Although often used interchangeably, there is a subtle difference between resting metabolic rate (RMR) and basal metabolic rate (BMR). While RMR refers to the energy needed for basic bodily functions while at rest, BMR is the energy needed for the body's basic functions when in a completely rested and fasting state. This means that BMR is measured under stricter conditions than RMR, such as a 12-hour fast and no physical activity prior to the test.

Another difference between the two is that RMR typically results in a slightly higher number of calories burned compared to BMR since RMR accounts for some light activity throughout the day. However, for practical purposes, the difference between the two is usually small, and the terms are often used interchangeably in everyday conversation.

To conclude, while RMR and BMR have some differences, they both represent the amount of energy required by the body to function at rest. Understanding your RMR or BMR can be helpful for weight management and overall health goals.

The Bottom Line

Understanding your resting metabolic rate (RMR) and how to improve it can help you maintain a healthy weight and improve your overall health. While there are several ways to calculate RMR, using an online calculator is the easiest and most accessible method. By making healthy lifestyle choices such as losing weight, building muscle, doing cardio, getting enough sleep, eating a healthy diet, staying hydrated, and not skipping meals, you can improve your RMR and burn more calories at rest. Remember, seeing results takes time and consistency, so don't lose hope if you do not see instant results.

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Basal Metabolic Rate

Basal Metabolic Rate

basameta.pngUnderstanding BMR (Basal Metabolic Rate)

BMR is short for Basal Metabolic Rate. It describes the quantity of energy your body needs to continue performing its essential processes while at rest, such as breathing, maintaining blood flow, and maintaining organ function. It is the amount of energy that your body would expend if you spent the entire day doing nothing but resting.

BMR varies based on factors such as age, gender, height, weight, and muscle mass. It is an important factor to consider when determining how many calories you have to consume daily to maintain, gain or lose weight. Knowing your BMR might assist you in making wise choices regarding your food and fitness routine.

BMR vs Resting Metabolic Rate

BMR (Basal Metabolic Rate) and Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) are two terms used interchangeably to refer to the amount of energy your body burns at rest. Still, there is a slight difference between the two.

BMR refers to the energy your body requires to carry out basic functions like cell multiplication, circulation, and breathing, while in a completely rested and fasted state (12 hours after the last meal). In contrast, RMR refers to the energy your body burns at rest but without the fasted state requirement.

The RMR measurement is slightly higher than the BMR measurement because it takes into account the energy used during the digestion and processing of food, which is not included in the BMR. However, for practical purposes, BMR and RMR are often used interchangeably.

Both BMR and RMR are important for weight management because they represent the minimum amount of energy required to keep the body functioning. By knowing your BMR or RMR, you can estimate your daily calorie needs and make informed decisions about your diet and exercise routine.

How to Estimate BMR

There are several formulas that can be used to estimate BMR, although they may not be entirely accurate as they are based on averages and do not take into account individual variations. Here are two commonly used formulas:

Harris-Benedict Equation:

For males, Basal Metabolic Rate = 88.362 + (weight in kilograms x 13.397) + (height in centimeters x 4.799) - (age in years x 5.677)

For females, Basal Metabolic Rate = 447.593 + (weight in kilograms x 9.247) + (height in centimeters x 3.098) - (age in years x 4.330)

Mifflin-St. Jeor Equation:

For men: BMR = (weight in kilograms x 10) + (height in centimeters x 6.25) - (age in years x 5) + 5

For women: BMR = (weight in kilograms x 10) + (height in centimeters x 6.25) - (age in years x 5) - 161

To use these formulas, you must know your weight in kilograms, height in centimeters, and age in years. Once you calculate your BMR, you can use it to estimate your daily calorie needs based on your activity level. Keep in mind that these formulas provide only an estimate and should be used as a starting point for determining your calorie needs.


How Many Calories Do You Need Every Day?

The number of calories you need every day depends on several factors, including your age, sex, weight, height, body composition, and activity level. Generally, the more active you are, the more calories you will need. Similarly, if you have a higher percentage of muscle mass, you may require more calories than someone with less muscle mass.

To get a rough estimate of how many calories you need, you can use the following guidelines:

Sedentary lifestyle: If you have a desk job and do not engage in regular exercise or physical activity, you may need around 1,600-2,000 calories per day.


Moderately active lifestyle: If you engage in light exercise or physical activity, such as walking or yoga, for 30-60 minutes per day, you may need around 2,000-2,400 calories per day.


Active lifestyle: If you engage in moderate to high-intensity exercise or physical activity for 60 minutes or more per day, you may need around 2,400-3,000+ calories per day.


Again, these are just rough estimates, and your actual calorie needs may vary based on your individual factors. It's always a good idea to consult with a healthcare professional or registered dietitian to determine your specific calorie needs based on your health goals and lifestyle.

What is a Healthy BMR?

There is no specific range for a "healthy" BMR as it varies based on several factors, including age, sex, height, weight, and body composition. However, a BMR within the normal range for your age, sex, and body composition is generally considered healthy.

Your body composition influences your BMR, and having a higher proportion of muscle mass can result in a higher BMR. A BMR that is significantly higher or lower than what is expected based on your body composition and other factors may indicate an underlying health condition and may require medical evaluation.

It's important to note that a higher BMR does not necessarily mean better health, and it's important to focus on overall health and wellness rather than just the number of calories burned at rest. A balanced diet, regular physical activity, adequate sleep, and stress management are all essential components of a healthy lifestyle.

How to Use BMR to Lose Fat or to Gain Muscle?

You can use your BMR to lose fat or gain muscle by adjusting your calorie intake and physical activity levels.

To Lose Fat:


1.     Calculate your BMR using one of the formulas mentioned earlier.


2.     Determine your daily calorie needs based on your activity level and subtract 500 to 1000 calories per day from that number to create a calorie deficit.


3.     Maintain a balanced diet with various whole foods that include complex carbohydrates, healthy fats, and lean protein.  


4.     Incorporate regular exercise and strength training into your routine to burn calories and preserve muscle mass.


5.     Monitor your progress and adjust your calorie intake and activity level as needed.


To Gain Muscle:


1.     Calculate your BMR using one of the formulas mentioned earlier.


2.     Determine your daily calorie needs based on your activity level and add 250 to 500 calories per day to create a calorie surplus.


3.     Consume adequate amounts of protein, carbohydrates, and healthy fats to support muscle growth and recovery.


4.     Incorporate strength training exercises into your routine, focusing on progressive overload to challenge your muscles and promote growth.


5.     Rest and recover adequately to allow your muscles to repair and grow.


It is important to note that both fat loss and muscle gain take time and consistency. It is recommended to make gradual changes to your diet and exercise routine and to seek guidance from a healthcare professional or registered dietitian to ensure you are making safe and sustainable changes.


How Can You Change Your BMR?

Your BMR is primarily determined by factors such as age, sex, height, weight, and body composition, which are largely outside of your control. However, some lifestyle factors can impact your BMR, such as:


Muscle Mass: Muscle tissue is more metabolically active than fat tissue, which means that having more muscle can increase your BMR. Engaging in regular strength training exercises can help you build and maintain muscle mass.


Physical Activity: Regular physical activity can increase your BMR by burning calories and increasing muscle mass. Incorporating both cardiovascular and strength training exercises into your routine can help boost your BMR.


Diet: Your body requires energy to digest and absorb the nutrients in the food you eat, and this process can increase your BMR. Eating a diet that is high in protein and fiber can increase the thermic effect of food and boost your BMR.


Sleep: Lack of sleep or poor-quality sleep can negatively impact your BMR. Aim for 7-9 hours of sleep per night to promote optimal health and support a healthy BMR.

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How To Open A Gym?

How To Open A Gym?

Are you a fitness geek who's interested in opening up a gym? This guide will tell you all you need to know about this. Let's begin!


Steps to Open a Gym

Opening a gym can be a complex process that requires careful planning and execution. Here are some general steps you can follow to open a gym:

1.     Planning and research

To find out whether a gym is needed in your community, conduct market research. Incorporate your target market, the competition, the services you offer, financial projections, and marketing strategies in your business plan.


2.     Location

Pick a place that is convenient to get to and has enough parking. Take into account the room's dimensions, configuration, and required equipment.


3.     Legal and regulatory requirements

Secure the authorizations and licenses required to run a gym in your region. This can entail having your company registered, getting liability insurance, and adhering to construction requirements and safety rules.


4.     Financing

Establish the financial requirements for opening your gym and seek funding via investments, loans, or grants.


5.     Supplies and equipment

Invest in or rent weights, aerobic equipment, and exercise mats. Supplies like cleaning products, towels, and water bottles will also need to be purchased.


6.     Staffing

Hire qualified workers, such as front desk agents, group exercise instructors, and personal trainers. Be sure you abide by all rules and laws pertaining to work.


7.     Marketing

Create a marketing plan to advertise your gym and draw customers. This can entail setting up a website, social media profiles, and local media advertising.


8.     Grand opening

Host a grand opening event to introduce your gym to the community and offer promotions to attract new members.


9.     Ongoing operations

After your gym opens, keep track of and oversee operations to guarantee success. To keep members interested, this means keeping up with equipment maintenance, offering top-notch customer service, and introducing new programs and services.


What Are Some Skills and Experiences That Will Help You Build a Successful Gym?

There are several skills and experiences that can help you build a successful gym, including:

1.     Fitness knowledge: The foundation of a successful gym is a solid grasp of fitness and exercise. This includes understanding various exercise forms, training methods, and apparatus.

2.     Business management: Managing a gym needs a variety of business abilities, such as budgeting, marketing, and personnel control.

3.     Sales and customer service: You need to be able to sell your gym's services and offer first-rate customer service to draw in new members and keep them coming back.

4.     Marketing and branding: A strong brand and successful marketing for your gym will help you attract new members and cultivate a devoted clientele. Leadership and management: As a gym owner, you will need to lead and manage a team of staff to ensure the smooth operation of the business.

5.     Networking: Staying updated on the newest trends and opportunities can be made easier by cultivating connections with other companies and experts in the fitness sector.

6.     Entrepreneurial spirit: Establishing a profitable gym demands ingenuity, risk-taking, and an entrepreneurial spirit.

7.     Fitness-related personal experience: Having fitness-related personal experience will help you relate to your consumers and comprehend their requirements and ambitions.

8.     Technical abilities: Knowledge of technology and software for administering the gym, as well as the ability to handle and maintain workout equipment, can be helpful qualities for managing a successful gym. Passion for fitness and helping others: Finally, having a genuine passion for fitness and a desire to help others achieve their fitness goals can be a key ingredient for building a successful gym.

9.     Technical know-how: Running a successful gym requires handling and maintaining workout equipment and having a working grasp of technology and management software.

10. Passion for fitness and helping others: Finally, having a genuine passion for fitness and a desire to assist others in achieving their fitness goals can be a crucial component in creating a successful gym.


 Growth Potential for a Gym

The growth potential for a gym depends on several factors, including its location, target market, services offered, and the overall demand for fitness services in the area. Here are some factors that can impact a gym's growth potential:


1.     Location: Compared to a gym in a remote or difficult-to-find location, one in a high-traffic region with good visibility and simple access will likely have a larger growth potential.

2.     Target market: A gym that targets a certain group of people, such as athletes, the elderly, or solely women, may have a more devoted and focused clientele.

3.     Services provided: By providing various services, like personal training, group exercise classes, and nutrition counseling, a business can draw in a wider spectrum of clients and perhaps boost revenue.

4.     Competitive landscape: The number and quality of competing gyms in the area can impact a gym's potential for growth. Industry trends: Keeping up with trends in the fitness industry, such as new types of workouts or wellness services, can help a gym stay relevant and attract new customers.

5.     5. Marketing: A gym can expand its member base and attract new clients by using effective marketing methods.

6.     6. Customer retention: Retaining existing customers through excellent customer service and engagement can help a gym grow through word-of-mouth referrals and positive reviews.

What are The Costs Involved in Opening a Gym?

The costs involved in opening a gym can vary widely depending on factors such as the location, size, type of gym, and equipment needed. Here are some of the common costs to consider when opening a gym:


1.     Lease or rent: Depending on the location and size of the gym, the cost of leasing or renting a space might vary substantially.

2.     Equipment: Depending on the type and amount required, the price of a gym's equipment can range from a few thousand dollars to hundreds of thousands of dollars.

3.     Renovations: Depending on the state of the facility, upgrades may be required to make the gym usable. This can apply to plumbing, electrical, lighting, and flooring projects.

4.     Licenses and permits: Acquiring the licenses and permits required to run a gym may require paying fees and incurring legal costs. Insurance: Liability insurance is essential for protecting the gym in case of accidents or injuries.

5.     Staffing: Hiring new employees can be expensive for a gym due to pay, benefits, and training costs.

6.     Marketing and advertising: Expenses for marketing and advertising may include creating websites, utilizing social media, and running print or online advertisements.

7.     Software and technology: Booking software, gym management software, and other technology can help operations run more smoothly, but they may also be more expensive.

8.     Utilities and maintenance: Ongoing costs like electricity, materials for cleaning, and equipment maintenance can pile up over time.


What are the Ongoing Expenses of Running a Gym?

Running a gym involves ongoing expenses that should be taken into consideration when planning and budgeting. Here are some common ongoing expenses of running a gym:


1.     Rent or mortgage: One of the major continuous costs is the price of renting or buying the gym space. Lease payments, property taxes, and mortgage payments all fall under this category.

2.     Utilities: A gym's continuing expenses must include the cost of utilities like power, water, gas, and internet.

3.     Equipment maintenance and repair: It's critical to do routine maintenance and repair of gym equipment to ensure both user safety and equipment longevity. Budgeting for this continuous expense is advisable.

4.     Janitorial and cleaning services: A clean gym is necessary to maintain a secure and hygienic atmosphere. Janitorial and cleaning costs are recurring expenses. Staff salaries and benefits: Staffing costs, including salaries, benefits, and payroll taxes, are an ongoing expense for a gym.

5.     Staff salaries and benefits: A gym's continuing costs for personnel include salaries, insurance, and payroll taxes.

6.     Marketing and advertising: Continuous marketing and promotion activities are required to draw in new clients and keep existing ones. These expenses might cover print ads, social media marketing, email promotions, and more.

7.     Insurance: Liability and property insurance are recurring costs to safeguard the gym against conceivable claims and harm.

8.     Supplies: An recurring cost for a gym is the purchase of necessary supplies, including towels, cleaning materials, and office supplies.


Who is The Target Market?

The target market for a gym can vary depending on the gym's location, size, services offered, and other factors. Here are some common target markets for gyms:


1.     Fitness enthusiasts: These people are already committed to health and fitness and are seeking a top-notch gym with various tools and services to assist them in achieving their fitness objectives.

2.     Beginners: For people who are just beginning their fitness adventure, a gym that caters to beginners may provide introductory classes, personal training, or a more helpful and encouraging environment.

3.     Athletes: Some gyms have a dedicated section for athletes and may provide them with specialized tools, training plans, and coaching services to help them perform better.

4.     Women: In recent years, women-only gyms have grown in popularity, providing a safe and encouraging setting for women to exercise without feeling self-conscious.

5.     Seniors: To accommodate the needs of older people, gyms that cater to elders may offer low-impact exercises, classes just for seniors, and specialized equipment.

6.     Families: To promote healthy behaviors for the entire family, family-friendly gyms may provide daycare services, family-friendly classes, and kid-friendly activities.

Ultimately, the target market for a gym will depend on the gym's unique value proposition and the needs and preferences of the local community. It's important for gym owners to research and understand their target market to effectively market their gym and provide the services that their customers are looking for.


How Does a Gym Make Money?

A gym makes money by generating revenue from its members and other sources. Here are some common ways that a gym can make money:


1.     Membership fees: The primary source of revenue for most gyms is membership fees. Members pay a monthly or annual fee to access the gym's facilities, equipment, and services.

2.     Personal training: Many gyms offer personal training services, either through in-house trainers or independent contractors. Personal trainers typically charge an hourly rate or package fee for their services, and the gym may take a percentage of the fee as a commission.

3.     Group fitness classes: Group fitness classes such as yoga, spin, or HIIT can be a popular service for gym members. These classes may be included in the membership fee, or members may need to pay an additional fee to attend.

4.     Retail sales: Many gyms sell fitness apparel, supplements, and other fitness-related products to their members, either in-house or through partnerships with other retailers.

5.     Corporate partnerships: Some gyms partner with corporations to offer discounted membership rates to their employees as part of a wellness program.

6.     Event rentals: Gyms may rent out their facilities for events such as fitness competitions, charity events, or private parties.

7.     Personal locker rentals: Some gyms offer personal locker rentals as an additional service to members.


How Much Can You Charge Customers?

The amount a gym can charge its customers will depend on various factors such as the location, size, type of gym, equipment offered, and the level of service provided. Here are some key factors that can affect the pricing of gym memberships:


1.     Location: The cost of living and competition in the local market can impact how much a gym can charge for its services.

2.     Type of gym: The type of gym can impact pricing. For example, a luxury gym that offers high-end amenities such as spa services and personal training may charge a premium price compared to a no-frills gym.

3.     Equipment and amenities: The type and quantity of equipment and amenities offered can impact pricing. A gym with a wide range of high-quality equipment and modern amenities may charge more than a gym with basic equipment.

4.     Level of service: Gyms that offer personalized services such as personal training, nutrition coaching, and customized workout plans may charge more than gyms that offer standard services.

5.     Membership term: Gyms may offer different pricing options based on the length of the membership term. For example, a gym may offer a discount for an annual membership compared to a monthly membership.


Overall, the pricing for gym memberships can vary widely. Monthly membership fees can range from $20 to over $200, depending on the factors mentioned above.

It's important for gym owners to research the local market and understand their target market's willingness to pay when setting their prices. It's also important to regularly evaluate pricing and adjust it as necessary to remain competitive and sustainable.


What are the Limitations of Opening a Gym

While opening a gym can be a great opportunity, there are also some limitations to consider. Here are some potential limitations of opening a gym:


1.     High start-up costs: Opening a gym can require significant upfront costs, including equipment purchases, rent or building costs, staffing expenses, marketing and advertising costs, and more.

2.     Competitive market: Depending on the location, the gym industry can be highly competitive, with many established players already in the market.

3.     Maintenance and repair costs: Gym equipment can be expensive to maintain and repair. Regular upkeep is necessary to ensure customer safety and satisfaction.

4.     Liability and insurance costs: Gyms must carry insurance to protect against injury or damage claims. The cost of insurance can be significant depending on the size of the gym and the number of employees.

5.     Seasonality: The demand for gym services can be seasonal, with fewer customers during certain times of the year, such as during the holidays or summer months.

6.     Changing consumer preferences: The fitness industry is always evolving, and consumer preferences can shift quickly. Keeping up with these changes and offering the latest trends and services can be challenging and expensive.

7.     Staffing challenges: Finding and retaining qualified staff, particularly personal trainers and other fitness professionals, can be difficult and can impact the quality of services offered.

Potential gym owners need to consider these limitations and thoroughly research and plan for the costs and challenges of opening a gym. By carefully considering these factors and developing a solid business plan, it is possible to overcome these limitations and build a successful gym.


How to Limit the Costs of Opening a Gym?

Opening a gym can be costly, but some strategies can help limit costs. Here are some ways to reduce the costs of opening a gym:


1.     Start small: Consider starting with a smaller space or renting a gym space during off-peak hours. Starting with a smaller space can reduce rent, equipment, and utility costs.

2.     Buy used equipment: Look for used equipment instead of purchasing new equipment. Many gym owners sell their equipment when they close their businesses or upgrade their facilities.

3.     Negotiate with vendors: Negotiate with vendors, such as equipment suppliers, to get the best deals on equipment and supplies.

4.     DIY marketing: Consider doing your own marketing, such as social media posts and email newsletters, instead of hiring a marketing agency.

5.     Use freelancers or contractors: Consider using freelancers or independent contractors for services such as cleaning, maintenance, and personal training. This can help reduce staffing costs.

6.     Offer basic amenities: Consider offering basic amenities such as showers and changing rooms, but avoid offering unnecessary luxury amenities that can increase costs.

7.     Get creative with financing: Consider using alternative financing options, such as crowdfunding, loans, or partnerships, to fund your gym.


Overall, it's important to carefully consider costs and to develop a solid business plan that includes strategies to reduce costs without compromising the quality of the gym's services. By taking a lean approach and making smart decisions, it's possible to open a successful gym with minimal costs.


How Can You Cater to Disabled People in Your Gym?

Catering to disabled people in a gym can be a great way to create an inclusive environment and provide fitness opportunities to people with disabilities. Here are some ways to cater to disabled people in your gym:


1.     Provide wheelchair accessibility: Ensure your gym is accessible for wheelchair users by providing ramps, wider doorways, and accessible parking spaces.


2.     Offer adaptive equipment: Consider offering adaptive equipment such as hand cycles, arm ergometers, or other equipment that can be used by people with disabilities.


3.     Hire knowledgeable staff: Hire knowledgeable staff who are trained to work with people with disabilities and can assist with modifications and adaptations to exercises.


4.     Offer modifications and adaptations: Work with members with disabilities to offer modifications and adaptations to exercises to ensure that everyone can participate in fitness activities.


5.     Provide space for therapy and rehabilitation: Consider offering space for physical therapy and rehabilitation to accommodate the specific needs of people with disabilities.


6.     Offer group fitness classes for people with disabilities: Offer specialized group fitness classes for people with disabilities, such as yoga, adaptive aerobics, and wheelchair basketball.


7.     Partner with disability organizations: Partner with local disability organizations to provide fitness opportunities and promote your gym to the disability community.


Overall, catering to disabled people in a gym requires a commitment to accessibility and inclusivity. By providing adaptations, knowledgeable staff, and specialized fitness opportunities, you can create an environment that welcomes all people, regardless of their abilities. This way, you can also pitch in your share in helping the community.


The Bottom Line

In conclusion, owning a gym can be a rewarding and potentially profitable business venture. However, it requires careful planning, budgeting, and management to succeed. Some important factors to consider when opening a gym include the location, target market, competition, start-up costs, ongoing expenses, and potential profits. It's also essential to focus on creating an inclusive and welcoming environment that caters to a diverse range of customers, including those with disabilities. With the right strategies in place, a gym can attract and retain members, generate revenue, and contribute to the health and wellness of the community.

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What is Body Composition?

What is Body Composition?

blogkapak1.pngBody composition refers to the proportion of different body tissues, including muscle fat, organs, and bone. It is a measure of the amount and distribution of these tissues within the body.

Typically, body composition is expressed in terms of the percentage of body fat versus the percentage of lean body mass (which includes muscle, bone, and organs). A person's body composition can be influenced by factors such as age, sex, genetics, diet, and physical activity.

Body composition is an important consideration for overall health and fitness, as having too much body fat can increase the risk of various health problems, including heart disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer. Conversely, having too little body fat can also be detrimental to health, as it can impair immune function, hormonal balance, and other essential bodily processes.


Why is it Important?

Body composition is important for several reasons:

Health: Excess body fat can increase the risk of various health problems, including heart disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer. Monitoring body composition can help individuals understand their risk of getting these health problems and make lifestyle changes to reduce their risk.

Fitness: Body composition is an important factor in overall fitness. Having a healthy proportion of muscle to fat can improve strength, endurance, and athletic performance.

Weight management: Monitoring body composition can help individuals understand their body's composition changes as they lose or gain weight. This information can help them set realistic weight loss goals and adjust their diet and exercise accordingly.

Disease management: Certain medical conditions, such as osteoporosis, may require monitoring of body composition to assess bone density and muscle mass.

Aesthetics: Many people are interested in improving their body composition for aesthetic reasons, such as wanting to look leaner and more toned.

Overall, understanding and monitoring body composition is important for achieving and maintaining optimal health, fitness, and wellbeing.

What is Body Fat, Body Fat Percentage?

Body fat refers to the amount of adipose tissue (fat) present in the body. Body fat percentage is the proportion of fat versus the other components of the body, such as muscle, bone, and organs. It is a more accurate measure of body composition than body weight alone, as it takes into account the proportion of fat versus lean body mass.

Body fat percentage can be measured using various methods, including bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), skinfold calipers, and underwater weighing. These methods involve different levels of accuracy, convenience, and cost.

Having too much body fat, particularly visceral fat (fat stored around the organs), can increase the risk of various health problems, including heart disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer. However, having too little body fat can also be harmful to health, as it can impair immune function, hormonal balance, and other essential bodily processes.

The optimal body fat percentage varies depending on factors such as age, sex, and fitness level. Generally, healthy body fat percentages range from around 10-20% for men and 20-30% for women, although these ranges may vary according to the individual.


Body Composition Vs Body Mass

Body composition and body mass are two different measures of the body.

Body composition is a more detailed measure of the body than body mass, as it takes into account the distribution of these tissues and provides information about body fat percentage and lean body mass.

On the other hand, body mass refers to the total weight of the body, regardless of the proportion of fat, muscle, bone, and organs. Body mass is a simpler measure than body composition, but it is less informative about the health and fitness of the individual.

While body mass can be a useful measure for tracking changes in weight, body composition provides a more detailed understanding of the body and its health. Understanding both body composition and body mass can be helpful for setting and tracking health and fitness goals.


Measuring Body Composition?

There are several methods for measuring body composition, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Here are some commonly used methods:

BIA or Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis: This technique includes the passage of a small electrical current through the body. Then resistance to the current is measured, which is then used for body fat percentage estimation.

Skinfold Calipers: In this technique, the thickness of skinfolds is measured at various locations of the body with the help of calipers. The measurements are used for the percentage estimation of body fat.

Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA): This method involves using a specialized X-ray machine to scan the body and measure the amount of fat, muscle, and bone. It provides highly accurate measurements of body composition but is more expensive and requires specialized equipment.

Hydrostatic Weighing: This method involves weighing the individual underwater and comparing their weight on land and in water. It provides highly accurate measurements of body composition but requires specialized equipment and may not be practical for everyone.

DigiME Solution: DigiME is a digital health solution that uses advanced artificial intelligence to estimate body composition from 3D scans taken with a smartphone. This innovative method offers a convenient and cost-effective way to monitor body composition and track changes over time.

Regardless of the method used, it is important to follow the instructions carefully to ensure accurate and consistent measurements. It is also important to keep in mind that each method has its own limitations and sources of error, and no single method is perfect for everyone.


Factors to Consider

There are several factors to consider when measuring and interpreting body composition, including:

Age and Sex: Body composition can vary depending on age and sex. For example, men tend to have more muscle mass and less body fat than women.

Genetics: Genetics plays a role in determining body composition. Some people may have a genetic predisposition to carry more body fat, while others may have a genetic advantage for building muscle.

Physical Activity: Physical activity can influence body composition by increasing muscle mass and reducing body fat.

Diet: Diet can also influence body composition by providing the nutrients needed to build muscle and by affecting the amount of body fat stored.

Health Conditions: Certain health conditions, such as osteoporosis or metabolic disorders, can affect body composition and require specific approaches for measurement and interpretation.

Measurement Method: The accuracy and precision of the chosen measurement method must be considered, as each method has its own strengths and limitations.

Personal Goals: Personal goals and preferences can also influence the interpretation of body composition measurements. For example, someone who is focused on building muscle may have a different ideal body composition than someone who is focused on weight loss.

How to Change Body Composition?

Changing body composition requires a multifaceted approach that includes both diet and exercise. Here are some strategies to consider:

Resistance Training: Resistance training, such as weight lifting, can help build muscle and increase lean body mass. This, in turn, can increase metabolism and reduce body fat.

Cardiovascular Exercise: Cardiovascular exercise, such as running or cycling, can help burn calories and reduce body fat.

Balanced Diet: A balanced diet that is rich in protein, healthy fats, and complex carbohydrates can provide the nutrients needed to support muscle building and reduce body fat.

Caloric Deficit: A caloric deficit achieved through a combination of exercise and diet can help reduce body fat.

Adequate Sleep: Adequate sleep is important for recovery and can help support muscle building and reduce stress, which can contribute to weight gain.

Stress Management: Managing stress through techniques such as meditation or yoga can help reduce the production of stress hormones, which can contribute to weight gain.

The Bottom Line

Body composition is a term describing the proportion of muscle, bone, fat, and other tissues in the body. Measuring body composition can provide valuable information about fitness and health, and various methods are available. Changing body composition requires a multifaceted approach that includes diet, exercise, and lifestyle factors. A balanced diet, regular exercise, and stress management are important for achieving and maintaining a healthy body composition.


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What is Mediterranean Diet?

What is Mediterranean Diet?

The Mediterranean diet is a dietary pattern that is based on the traditional foods and eating habits of the countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. The diet emphasizes the consumption of plant-based foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and nuts while limiting the intake of red meat and unhealthy fats.

A modest chicken, dairy, eggs, and fish intake is also part of the Mediterranean diet. The main source of fat in the diet is olive oil, while red wine is drunk with meals in moderation. The diet, which is rich in antioxidants, fiber, vitamins, and minerals, is linked to a number of health advantages, including a decreased risk of heart disease, stroke, and several types of cancer.

Overall, the Mediterranean diet is not just a specific set of foods, but a lifestyle that promotes healthy eating habits, regular physical activity, and social connection around shared meals.


How Does the Mediterranean Diet Work?

The Mediterranean diet is effective because it gives the body access to a variety of nutrient-rich foods that have been proven to improve health and lower the chance of developing chronic diseases. The Mediterranean diet functions in the following ways, to name a few:

Rich in healthy fats: The Mediterranean diet is rich in healthy fats, particularly monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, which are found in olive oil, nuts, seeds, and fatty fish. Inflammation and cholesterol levels can be reduced with these fats, reducing the risk of heart disease and stroke.

High in fiber: The diet is also high in fiber, which is found in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and legumes. Fiber helps to promote healthy digestion, maintain a healthy weight, and reduce the risk of certain cancers.

Emphasizes whole, minimally processed foods: The Mediterranean diet emphasizes whole, minimally processed foods rather than processed and packaged foods. The diet is naturally low in added sugars, unhealthy fats, and refined carbohydrates.

Encourages social connection: The Mediterranean diet is often enjoyed in the company of others, which can promote social connection and reduce stress levels. Social connection has been shown to have numerous health benefits, including improved mental health and reduced risk of chronic disease.


What are the Potential Health Benefits of the Mediterranean Diet?

The Mediterranean diet is associated with a range of potential health benefits, including:

Reduced risk of heart disease: Mediterranean diets are rich in healthy fats, fiber, and antioxidants, which can help reduce inflammation and improve cholesterol levels, which are both important factors in preventing heart disease.

Lowered risk of stroke: Studies have shown that following a Mediterranean diet can significantly lower the risk of stroke.

Reduced risk of type 2 diabetes: Diets high in fiber, whole grains, and healthy fats can help control blood sugar levels and reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.

Improved brain health: Nutritional components of the diet are important for brain health, such as omega-3 fatty acids, B vitamins, and antioxidants. Mediterranean diets may reduce the risk of cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease, according to studies.

Lowered risk of certain cancers: The diet is high in antioxidants and fiber, both of which can help protect against certain types of cancer, including breast, colon, and prostate cancer.

Improved mental health: The Mediterranean diet is associated with a reduced risk of depression and anxiety and may also help improve overall mood and well-being.

Better weight management: The diet is naturally lower in calories and unhealthy fats, and higher in fiber and protein, which can help promote satiety and reduce overeating.


Can the Mediterranean Diet Lead to Weight Loss?

Yes, combining a Mediterranean diet with calorie-controlled eating and regular physical activity can lead to weight loss. In addition to promoting feelings of fullness and preventing overeating, the Mediterranean diet is naturally lower in calories than many Western-style diets.

In reality, a number of studies have demonstrated that adopting a Mediterranean-style eating pattern can promote weight loss and enhance body composition. For instance, a New England Journal of Medicine research discovered that people who followed a Mediterranean-style diet lost more weight and had a reduced risk of heart disease than those who followed a low-fat diet.

It's crucial to remember that the Mediterranean diet is neither a fad nor a quick answer for weight loss, however. Instead, it's a healthy, sustainable eating pattern prioritizing whole, minimally processed meals and consistent exercise. Instead of relying entirely on the Mediterranean diet to help you lose weight, it's crucial to concentrate on building a calorie deficit through a combination of healthy eating and activity.

Best Mediterranean Diet Recipes

There are many delicious Mediterranean diet recipes that you can try. Here are a few ideas to get you started:

Mediterranean Quinoa Salad: Cook quinoa according to package instructions, and then toss with chopped cucumber, cherry tomatoes, red onion, chickpeas, and crumbled feta cheese. Dress with olive oil, lemon juice, and a sprinkle of oregano.

Grilled Lemon-Herb Chicken: Marinate boneless, skinless chicken breasts in a mixture of lemon juice, olive oil, garlic, and fresh herbs (such as rosemary, thyme, and oregano) for at least 30 minutes. Grill or bake until cooked through.

Greek Salad: Toss chopped romaine lettuce with cherry tomatoes, sliced cucumber, red onion, Kalamata olives, and crumbled feta cheese. Dress with olive oil and red wine vinegar.

Baked Salmon with Lemon and Garlic: Place salmon fillets in a baking dish and drizzle with olive oil. Season with salt, pepper, garlic powder, and lemon juice. Bake at 400°F for 12-15 minutes or until cooked through.

Whole Grain Pasta with Roasted Vegetables: Toss cooked whole grain pasta with roasted vegetables (such as eggplant, zucchini, red pepper, and onion), chopped fresh herbs, and a sprinkle of Parmesan cheese.

Chickpea and Spinach Stew: Sauté chopped onion and garlic in olive oil until softened. Add canned chickpeas, diced tomatoes, and a pinch of cumin and smoked paprika. Simmer for 10-15 minutes, then add chopped spinach and cook until wilted.

Falafel: Blend chickpeas, garlic, onion, parsley, and spices (such as cumin, coriander, and turmeric) in a food processor until smooth. Form into patties and bake or fry until crispy. Serve in a pita with sliced tomatoes, cucumber, and tahini sauce.

These are just a few examples of the many delicious Mediterranean diet recipes out there. Experiment with different herbs, spices, and ingredients to create your own healthy and flavorful dishes.


4 Tips for Dining Out on the Mediterranean Diet

Eating out can be challenging when you're trying to stick to a healthy eating plan like the Mediterranean diet. Here are five tips for dining out while still following the Mediterranean diet:

Look for grilled or roasted options: When choosing a main dish, look for items that are grilled or roasted, rather than fried or breaded. Grilled fish or chicken, roasted vegetables, and grilled kebabs are all good options.

Opt for salads or soups: Start your meal with a salad or soup. Choose options that are based on vegetables, legumes, or whole grains, such as lentil soup, Greek salad, or tabbouleh.

Ask for olive oil: Olive oil is a staple of the Mediterranean diet, and many restaurants will be happy to provide it upon request. Use it to dress your salad or drizzle it over grilled vegetables or fish.

Skip the bread basket: While bread is a part of the Mediterranean diet, it's best to skip the bread basket when dining out. This will help you avoid excess calories and carbs and leave more room for nutrient-dense foods.

By following these tips, you can enjoy a healthy and delicious Mediterranean-inspired meal while dining out.

The Bottom Line

The Mediterranean diet is a balanced and healthy way of eating that emphasizes whole, minimally processed foods, healthy fats, and plant-based foods. It has numerous health benefits, including reducing the risk of chronic diseases, improving cognitive function, and promoting weight loss. Opt for grilled or roasted options, salads or soups, and share dishes to stick to the diet when dining out.

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What is Ideal Weight?

What is Ideal Weight?

blogiedal.pngThe ideal weight is the amount of weight you should be at to be healthy. It depends on your height and age, as well as your gender and body type.
The most common way to measure ideal body mass index (BMI) is through a scale called the "Body Mass Index Calculator." The results will tell you whether you are underweight, normal or overweight.

For example, if you're 5'5" tall with a BMI of 23-24 kg/m2, then this means that you have an acceptable amount of fat in your body. However, if someone else who has the same height but weighs more than 25 kg/m2 then they would be considered overweight or obese!

How to Calculate BMI

BMI is a measure of body fat based on height and weight. You can calculate it using the following formula:

·        BMI = (weight in kilograms)/(height in meters)2

The resulting number is then interpreted according to age and gender. For example, if you're a woman aged 40-59 with a BMI between 25 and 29.9, it means that your weight is considered healthy. However, if your BMI falls within the range of 30-39.9 or 40+, you may be considered overweight or obese, respectively.

Factors That Affect Ideal Weight


As you age, your metabolism slows down, and you require fewer calories to maintain a healthy weight. Therefore, your ideal body weight will be lower than when you were younger.

For example, if a 30-year-old woman weighs 150 pounds but has reached her ideal weight for her age and height (120 pounds), she would need less food than if she was 20 years old and weighed 120 pounds at that point in time.



Men tend to have more muscle mass than women, meaning they burn more calories even at rest. This means that men should have higher daily calorie requirements than women - around 1,500 calories per day versus 1,200 for women - to maintain their current weight or lose weight.


Body Type

People who carry more fat around their waists (apple-shaped) are at greater risk for developing diabetes and heart disease than those with excess fat distributed throughout their bodies (pear-shaped).

If you're pear-shaped but want to look like an apple instead of vice versa, consider reducing excess belly fat through exercise or dieting before trying any other method because this area contains most of our organs, including the liver, kidney, pancreas, spleen etc.


Ideal Weight Ranges for Different Individuals

·        For men, the ideal body weight range is between 130 and 170 pounds.

·        For women, it's between 100 and 140 pounds.

·        BMI ranges for people in their 20s are 18.5-24.9; for those in their 30s, 25-29; for those in their 40s and 50s, 30-34; and for those over 60 years old: 35+.




Tips for Maintaining a Healthy Weight

·        Eat a balanced diet. Ensure you're getting enough protein, fat, and carbohydrates in your diet.

·        Exercise regularly. Try to get at least 30 minutes of exercise most days of the week, with more intense workouts on alternate days if you can manage them.

·        Track progress by weighing yourself once a week or so (but not every day) and keeping an eye on how your clothes fit over time - if they start feeling looser than usual, congratulations! You may have lost weight without even realizing it!


Seeking Professional Guidance

If you're in search of a healthy weight, it's important to seek professional guidance. A qualified healthcare provider can help you determine the right number on the scale and offer tips for maintaining that number.

If your goal is to lose weight, consider seeing a registered dietitian (RD). An RD has at least a bachelor's degree in nutrition and has completed additional training specific to dietary needs. They can provide individualized meal plans based on your lifestyle, medical history, and other factors that affect how food affects your body. They may also recommend supplements or other products that will support your efforts as well as provide guidance on exercise habits that will complement any dietary changes being made.


In conclusion, there are many factors that go into determining your ideal weight. It's important to remember that you can't simply look at your height and weight and determine whether or not it's healthy for you. You also need to consider other factors such as age, gender, and body type before making any conclusions about how much or little fat is on your body. If you are confused about your BMI or would like to learn more, please get in touch with a healthcare professional.


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How to Reduce Visceral Fat?

How to Reduce Visceral Fat?

viscetal.pngVisceral fat, or the fat that accumulates around the organs in the abdominal cavity, is a type of fat that poses serious health risks. Excess visceral fat has been linked to numerous health conditions, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and even certain types of cancer. Fortunately, there are effective ways to reduce visceral fat through lifestyle changes, including diet and exercise. In this article, we will explore the causes of visceral fat, its associated health risks, and some practical ways to reduce it.


What is Visceral Fat?

Visceral fat, also known as intra-abdominal fat, is a type of fat that accumulates deep within the abdominal cavity, surrounding the internal organs, including the pancreas, intestines, and liver. Unlike subcutaneous fat, which lies just under the skin and is visible as "belly fat," visceral fat is not always visible and may be difficult to detect.


What Causes Visceral Fat?

A combination of genetic and lifestyle factors influences visceral fat accumulation. Some of the common causes of visceral fat are:

1.     Poor Diet: Consuming a diet high in sugar, saturated and trans fats, and refined carbohydrates can accumulate visceral fat.

2.     Sedentary Lifestyle: Lack of physical activity and a sedentary lifestyle can contribute to visceral fat accumulation. Exercise helps burn calories, reducing overall body fat, including visceral fat.

3.     Hormonal Imbalances: If hormone levels are not normal, such as elevated cortisol and insulin levels, this can also contribute to visceral fat accumulation.

4.     Genetics: Some people may be genetically predisposed to accumulating more visceral fat than others.

5.     Age: As people age, their metabolism slows down, and they tend to lose muscle mass. This can lead to the accumulation of visceral fat.

6.     Sleep Deprivation: Not getting enough sleep or poor-quality sleep can lead to hormonal imbalances that contribute to the accumulation of visceral fat.


How is Visceral Fat Measured?

Visceral fat can be measured using various methods, including:

1.     MRI or CT Scan: These imaging techniques can provide a detailed and accurate measurement of the quantity of the body's visceral fat.

2.     Waist Circumference: Waist circumference is a simple and non-invasive method to estimate the amount of visceral fat. Men with a waist circumference greater than 40 inches and women with a waist circumference greater than 35 inches are considered to have a high amount of visceral fat.

3.     Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA): BIA measures the electrical resistance of body tissues to estimate the amount of visceral fat.

4.     Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA): DEXA is primarily used to measure bone density, but it can also provide an estimate of the amount of visceral fat.

5.     Skinfold Calipers: Skinfold calipers measure the thickness of skinfolds at various points on the body, which can be used to estimate the amount of visceral fat.

It's important to note that no single method is perfect and different methods may provide different estimates of visceral fat. Consult a healthcare professional to determine the most appropriate method of measuring visceral fat for your individual needs.


Health Risks of Visceral Fat

Excess visceral fat is associated with an increased risk of several health problems, including:

1.     Type 2 Diabetes: Hormones, along with other substances, can be released from visceral fat. These may interfere with the body's ability to regulate blood sugar, causing insulin resistance and eventually type 2 diabetes.

2.     Heart Disease: Visceral fat has been shown to increase levels of "bad" cholesterol (LDL) and decrease levels of "good" cholesterol (HDL), leading to an increased risk of heart disease and stroke.

3.     High Blood Pressure: Excess visceral fat can cause the body to produce more angiotensin. This hormone constricts blood vessels, leading to high blood pressure.

4.     Specific Cancers: Visceral fat is associated with an increased risk of certain cancers, such as colon, pancreatic, and breast cancer.

5.     Fatty Liver Disease: Excess visceral fat can accumulate in the liver, leading to fatty liver disease.

6.     Sleep Apnea: Visceral fat can contribute to obstructive sleep apnea, a condition characterized by pauses in breathing during sleep.

7.     Cognitive Decline: Visceral fat has been associated with a decline in cognitive function and an increased risk of dementia.

How to Reduce Visceral Body Fat?

Reducing visceral body fat requires a combination of dietary and lifestyle changes, including:

1.     Eating a Healthy Diet: A diet that is low in processed foods, refined carbohydrates, and added sugars and high in fiber, protein, and healthy fats can help reduce visceral fat. This includes eating plenty of fruits, vegetables, lean protein, and whole grains.

2.     Regular Exercise: Regular physical activity, such as aerobic exercise and strength training, can help burn calories and reduce overall body fat, including visceral fat.

3.     Getting Enough Sleep: Getting enough quality sleep is important for reducing visceral fat. Aim for at least seven hours of sleep per night.

4.     Managing Stress: High stress levels can contribute to visceral fat accumulation. Engaging in stress-reducing activities such as meditation, yoga, or deep breathing exercises can help.

5.     Limiting Alcohol Intake: Drinking alcohol in moderation or limiting alcohol intake can help reduce visceral fat.

6.     Avoiding Smoking: Smoking can increase visceral fat accumulation, so quitting smoking can help reduce visceral fat.

7.     Medical Intervention: In some cases, medical intervention may be necessary to reduce visceral fat. This may include weight loss medication, bariatric surgery, or other medical treatments.

Overall, reducing visceral fat requires a combination of healthy lifestyle changes. By making these changes, you can reduce your visceral fat, improve your overall health, and reduce your risk of associated health problems.


A Daily Exercise Plan to Reduce Visceral Fat

An effective daily exercise plan to reduce visceral fat should include both aerobic exercise and strength training. The American Heart Association suggests a minimum of 2.5 hours of aerobic exercise of moderate-intensity per week, along with at least two days of strength training per week. Here's an example of a daily exercise plan to help reduce visceral fat:

1.     Warm-up: Begin with 5 to 10 minutes of warm-up, for instance, jumping jacks or light jogging, to get your blood flowing and prepare your muscles for exercise.

2.     Aerobic Exercise: Perform 30-60 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, such as brisk walking, jogging, cycling, swimming, or dancing. Aim for at least five days per week.

3.     Strength Training: Incorporate strength training exercises that target major muscle groups, such as squats, lunges, push-ups, and planks. Aim for at least two days per week, with a rest day in between.

4.     Cool-down and Stretching: After your workout, cool down with a few minutes of low-intensity activity, such as walking, and then stretch your muscles for 10-15 minutes to improve flexibility and reduce the risk of injury.


A Diet Plan to Reduce Visceral Fat

A diet plan to reduce visceral fat should focus on reducing calorie intake and promoting weight loss while also emphasizing nutrient-dense. These whole foods are low in refined carbohydrates and added sugars. Here's an example of a diet plan to reduce visceral fat:

1.     Reduce Calorie Intake: The first step to reducing visceral fat is to reduce calorie intake. This can be achieved by reducing portion sizes, avoiding high-calorie, high-fat foods, and limiting alcohol intake.

2.     Emphasize Whole Foods: Eat plenty of whole foods, such as fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains, that are high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals.

3.     Avoid Added Sugars and Refined Carbohydrates: Foods that are high in refined carbohydrates and added sugars, such as sugary drinks, white bread, and processed snacks, can contribute to the accumulation of visceral fat. Choose whole, unprocessed foods instead.

4.     Choose Healthy Fats: While it's important to limit saturated and trans fats, it's also important to include healthy fats, such as those found in nuts, seeds, avocados, and fatty fish, in your diet.

5.     Stay Hydrated: Drinking plenty of water throughout the day can help promote weight loss and reduce visceral fat.

6.     Limit Snacking: Snacking can contribute to excess calorie intake. If you need a snack, choose a healthy option such as a piece of fruit, a handful of nuts, or raw veggies with hummus.


The Bottom Line

Visceral fat is a fat type that gathers around the organs in the abdominal cavity and poses serious health risks. Fortunately, reducing visceral fat is possible through lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise. Following a healthy diet plan and engaging in regular exercise can reduce visceral fat and improve overall health. Consult with a healthcare professional to determine the most appropriate methods of reducing visceral fat for your individual needs. Remember, reducing visceral fat takes time and effort, but the health benefits are well worth it.


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